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Lungs- organs for respiration. Location Process of gas exchange- alveoli. Acinus- functional unit & its components.

Disorder respiratory failure & death. Affecting parts- airways, lung parenchyma, blood vessels & pleural surface.

The types of lung diseases; 1. Obstruction 2. Inflammation 3. Infection 4. Allergic 5. Neoplasia

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)- airflow obstuction. Poorly reversible & usually progressive. Damage to alveoli smoking. In bronchi sed number of goblet cells & production of glands that secrete mucus. Altogether - sed sputum production. Stenosis- small airways main cause.

Smoking- sequester activated neutrophilsrelease elastase.(protease) Antiprotease - inhibited in smoking- enzyme enters lung interstitium. Degrades-elastin-destruction & enlargement of airspaces.

sputum production Cough Breathlessness Common cold but severe Further smoking leads to; Chronic hypoxia Pulmonary hypertension Heart failure.

Spirometry- to measure functional abilities of lung. Slow rate of expiration in 1 sec. Bronchodilators Symptomatic drugs Stop smoking.

Inflammation- lung parenchyma. Due to streptococcus pneumoniae. Organism entry to 4 routes; 1. Inhalation 2. Aspiration from nasopharynx or oropharynx. 3. Hematogenous spread. 4. Direct spread thru adjoining site.

Normal lung- free from bacteria bcoz of defense mechanisms. 1. Nasopharyngeal filtering action 2. Mucociliary action 3. Alveolar macrophages 4. Immunoglobulins.

2. 3.


Respiratory failure- inadequate oxygenation leading death. Septicaemia- leads to hypotension & septic shock. Pleural effusion- fluid accumulation in pleural space leading to pus formation called empyema. Lung abscess-a pus filled cavity destroying adjacent tissue.

Disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. If left untreated, this growth can spread beyond the lung in a process called metastasis into nearby tissue or other parts of the body. Benign- lung hamartoma. Malignant- lung carcinoma.

Tumour like lesion. Abnormal mixture of lung components. 2 types; 1. Chondromatous hamartoma: Symptomatic Spherical mass 2-5 cm at periphery of lung Nodules of cartilage with adipose tissue & bronchial epithelium.

2. Leiomyomatous hamartoma: 1-2 mm in diameter. Multiple lesions. Located near pleura Smooth muscle structures with bronchiolar cells.

Carcinomas & sarcomas from other parts undergo metastasis reaches lungs. Thru blood or lymph. Mutiple nodular lesions cannon ball appearance. Growth is prst in peribronchiolar & perivascular lesions. Common source-bowel, breast, thyroid, kidney, pancreas ,liver.