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Unit-2

Field Suppression
When a fault occurs in a generator winding, the CB trips & the generator is isolated from the system. However the generator still continues to feed the fault as long as excitation is maintained, & the damage increases. Therefore it is desirable to suppress the field as quickly as possible The field winding is connected to a discharge resistor to absorb the stored energy. The discharge resistor is connected in parallel with the field winding

Frame Leakage Protection

preferred for indoor installations In small substations the bus bars are kept inside metal frame when there is an earth fault, then fault current leaks from the frame and passes through the earth earth connection provided. Thus the primary of CT senses the current due to which current passes through the relay. This operates the relay This protection is provided small transformers as well.

Rotor earth fault

Current Transformer

Isolator

Circuit breaker

Lightening Arrestors

Buchholz Relay

Breather

Time graded protection


This type of protection is used where time lag is permitted This is a scheme of overcurrent protection in which time discrimination is incorporated. Normally employed for back up protection in large transmission system where instantaneous operation is not necessary

Current graded Protection


In this case relays are set to pick up at progressively higher values of current as one moves towards the source The relays are instantaneous over current relays It is based on the fact that the short circuit current along the length of the protected circuit decreases with the increase in distance between the supply end and the fault point Selectivity is poor

Pilot wire protection


Unit type of protection Operate only for faults occurring within the protected zone providing no back up protection Used for short lines where cost of pilot wires is not prohibitive Based on differential circulating current principle High speed protection for any fault location

Feeders
The conductors that carry current to the electrical load devices in a building are called feeders. Types of feeders: 1. Parallel feeder 2. Ring main feeder 3. Radial feeder

Protection of Radial feeder


The characteristic feature of a radial system is that power can flow only in one direction, from generator, or supply end to load. Disadvantage: continuity of supply cannot be maintained at the receiving end in the event of occurrence of fault. Number of feeders are connected in series

Drawback
Time lag is to be provided which is not desirable on short circuits This scheme can be used only for radial feeder with supply at one end only Difficult to coordinate and requires changes with the addition of loads Not suitable for long distance transmission line where rapid fault clearance is necessary to ensure stability of the system

Protection of parallel feeder