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8D Problem Solving

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

8D Problem Solving
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What is 8D?
Ford Motor Company started a problem solving process known as 8D which takes 8 Disciplines and uses them to tackle engineering problems
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8 Disciplines
BIRMINGHAM STOPPER CORRECTIVE ACTION REPORT
8D METHOD: CUSTOMER: PART NO: DESCRIPTION: DEFECT/FAULT DESCRIPTION: 8D TEAM: CAR RAISED BY: DATE: LOG NO: INTERNAL: 4 EXTERNAL: 4

A typical
form is used for the 8D approach to problem solving
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ACTION BY: IMMEDIATE CORRECTIVE/CONTAINMENT ACTION:

DATE:

ACTION BY: ROUTE CAUSE DEFINITION:

DATE:

ACTION BY: PERMANENT CORRECTIVE ACTION:

DATE:

ACTION BY: VERIFY PERMANENT CORRECTIVE ACTION:

DATE:

ACTION BY: PREVENT RECURRENCE (DOCUMENT UPDATE): F.M.E.A. REVIEWED (Y/N) CONTROL PLAN REVIEWED (Y/N) WORKS ORDER TEXT REVIEWED (Y/N)

DATE:

ACTION BY:

DATE:

COMMENTS:

DISTRIBUTION:

QC19 ISSUE 4 DATED 06/11/02

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8D Problem Solving

By taking this approach we can


continuously improve quality by eliminating the causes of problems and prevent their reoccurrence.
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What are the 8 Disciplines?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Define the problem. Build a team. Containment action. Determine the root cause. Verify the root cause. Corrective Action. Prevention. Congratulate the team.
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D1. Define the Problem

Do we know EXACTLY what the


problem is?

Have we seen the problem before? What evidence of the problem is


available?
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D2. Build a Team

Once a problem has been


bought to our attention, a team must be formed to tackle the problem.

Ideally, this will be a team


of people with a variety of skills and knowledge related to the problem.
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D3. Containment Action

What action can be taken immediately? Do we have stocks that need sorting? Are we still manufacturing parts with the problem?
Will the actions that we take cause other problems?
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D4. Determine the Root Cause

Has the cause of the problem been


identified?

Is there more than one cause? Did we refer to the F.M.E.A.?


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Brainstorming
Purpose - generate a list of
problems opportunities ideas

Success requires

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no criticism no arguing no negativism no evaluation


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Example of a Cause-and-effect diagram

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Example for 5-Why Analysis


Define Problem

Root Cause Corrective


Actions
Use this Path for Investing why the process failure happened
Why ? Why ?

Resp / Date

Use this Path for Investing why the problem was not detected Why ?
Why ? Why ? Why ?

A
Why ? Why ?

Why ?

B
Why ?

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D5. Verify the Root Cause

Are we sure that the root cause


has been properly identified?
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D6. Corrective Action

Has everyone been notified of the actions taken? Have we reviewed and updated the relevant F.M.E.A.? Have any temporary short term fixes been removed?
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D7. Prevention

Have we taken all actions to


prevent reoccurrences?

Have we considered other


similar products or processes?
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D8. Congratulate the Team

Have we identified each individual


team members contribution to solving the problem?

Have we acknowledged and


appreciated the efforts involved?
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8D

We have now seen the 8D problem solving method. You may be called upon to help solve a problem. Understanding the 8D approach will help in tackling future problems.
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