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Anurag Sharma (UC0306) Karan Deshmukh (UC1106) Saravanan Panneervel (UC3606) Dhruv Bhavsar (UC 3706)
Rehabilitation Strategies & Measures
Recover Original Performance Repair Damage & deterioration Stiffen existing structure
Strengthen existing structure
Rehabilitation Upgrade original performance Reduce irregularity Using Supplemental damping device Reduce Masses Reduce Seismic response Isolate existing structure
• Cosmetic repairs only improve the visual appearance of component damage and may restore non-structural properties (weather protection) but any structural benefit is negligible. • Structural repairs intends to restore structural properties.
Strengthening Chemically Deteriorated Concrete Structures
• Protection of concrete from the corrosive action of chemicals. . wet gases etc.What the method is… • The structural integrity of chemically-deteriorated reinforced concrete beams was restored by repairing one set of beams by epoxide resin latex and another by polymer-based latex system.5 months under alternate wetting and drying cycles to simulate severe corrosive conditions. • The beams were exposed to Sodium Sulphate solution for 3. is receiving considerable attention today.
• The impregnator penetrates into concrete merely by virtue of its low viscosity (2 to 4 Cps) and strengthens the cement matrix. • It provides additional binder into the deteriorated concrete and acts as a composite filler to fill up voids. • This type of strengthening is adopted in most of the European countries and the USA for strengthening bridge decks. honeycombs. hydraulic structures etc. deteriorated cement paste binder etc. .How the Beams were Strengthened… • The impregnator used for strengthening the original concrete matrix is a vital element in the rehabilitation method. RC structural elements.
• Addition of both epoxy as well as polymer latex increases the toughness by as much as 5 times as reflected by the area under stress-strain curves of Figs 2 and 3.Modifications due to the System of Treatment • The most redeeming feature of polymer modification is the significant improvement in toughness. .
• This eventually leads to deterioration of concrete. . • This chemical and crystallisation process is accompanied by an increase in volume and induces the pores of the concrete.Chemical Deterioration • One of the main reasons for the detrimental sulphate action is crystallised gypsum which is formed in the pores of concrete as a result of the reaction between the sulphate ions and the Ca(OH)2 of cement. particularly in the surface layer to expand and burst.
. • Polymer modification improves flexural and tensile strengths of cement mortar considerably whereas increase in compressive strength is marginal. proved to be effective in repairs of RC structures. by and large.Effectiveness of Repairs • The repairs carried out using two different systems proved very effective in restoring the strength and rigidity. • They are cost effective too. • This can be entirely attributed to repair procedure and materials used. • Polymer modified cementitious systems have.
Effectiveness of Repairs • Most redeeming feature of these systems is the significant increase in toughness values over cement-based systems. • This property alone renders the system most useful for repairs since the repaired areas would not deteriorate under dynamic loadings and energy distribution would be far form throughout the section. • Due to this. . microcracking was conspicuously absent and hence higher durability could be achieved.
Source: IIT-Rourkee’s Paper on Advanced Repair Techniques. .
strengthening the existing substrate. . • The two systems of polymer modified cement mortar used for sectional reconstruction have excellent adhesion with the concrete substrate. apart from having superior mechanical strength characteristics. must have contributed to the higher load-carrying capacity and rigidity of RC beams. • This allowed it to penetrate the concrete matrix.How it worked • A very low viscosity monomer was used to spray on the concrete substrate. • These two important properties. coupled with their higher toughness.
and 4% for the latex system. .Results • The epoxy based system gave 33% higher M.R.R. the epoxy system gave 42% higher M. compared to equal M. • In both cases of repairs. • For lesser deterioration.R. for the latex system. top coating of IPN polymer was provided throughout the section to protect it further from chemical attack.
Conclusions • The repair process and materials used for rehabilitation of deteriorated RC beams have proved to be effective. • The sectional reconstruction materials used in repairs are polymermodified systems and among the two. epoxy based system has exhibited better performance. Rigidity and ultimate load capacity of the beam is not only restored but an increase of 13 to 15 percent in ultimate load carrying capacity is recorded. . • The structural integrity of the chemically deteriorated beam was restored by the repair process as seen by the similar behaviour of the repaired beam under loading.
Carbon Fiber. Polypropylene fiber. ▫ Fibers are the reinforcement and the main source of strength while the matrix 'glues' all the fibers together in shape and transfers stresses between the reinforcing fibers. • Fiber Reinforced Composite (FRC): ▫ Fiber reinforced composites are composed of fibers and a matrix.Fiber Reinforced Composite Material • Composite Materials : ▫ Combination of more than two types of materials that combines the best features of each constituent so as to maximize certain properties ▫ A wide range of properties are possibly obtained. natural fiber. • Fibers include glass fiber. synthetic fiber. .
. ▫ Bars -as reinforcement in beams and slabs replacing the steel bars. ▫ Wraps -around concrete members to confine concrete and improve the compressive strength.Applications Of FRC • FRCs can be used in the concrete structures in the following forms: ▫ Plates -at a face to improve the tension capacity. ▫ Cables -as tendons and post tension members in suspension and bridge girders.
• Due to its corrosion resistance FRCs can be applied on the surface of the structure without worrying about its deterioration due to environmental attack. density of these materials is approximately one-third that of steel. • They in turn protect the concrete core from environmental attack .Advantages • The nonmetallic fibers have strengths that are 10 times more than that of steel • The ultimate strain of these fibers is also very high. In addition.
3 mm thick CFC laminate has doubled the ultimate load of a 15O x 200 beam of 2m span • It is observed that the tensile failure of the laminate occurred suddenly with a sharp explosive snap. • However. (Plate) . it was announced in advance by cracking sound.Use of Carbon Fiber Composite • The load deflection graph of a post strengthened beam has been compared with that of an unstrengthened beam • It was observed that a 0.
FRCS AS WRAPPING ON CONCRETE ELEMENTS • If a concrete element is confined using a wrapping the failure due to tensile cracks can be prevented • The compressive strength of the wrapped concrete element is several times higher than the unwrapped concrete element .
.• Wrapping is suggested around damaged concrete elements to improve the strength of the members. • Wrapping can be applied to strengthen concrete beams in compression and shear.
sand and fine aggregate concretes which are applied pneumatically and compacted dynamically under high velocity.What is Shotcrete? • Shotcrete is the generic name for cement. .
• In the 1960s. the "cement gun". he was granted a patent for his inventions. the equipment used. In 1911. with an open hopper that could be fed continuously . only the dry-mix process was used. the material that was produced.• Shotcrete : A Brief History • Shotcrete was invented in the early 1900s by American taxidermist Carl Akeley. • This was later used to patch weak parts in old buildings. and "gunite". wetting it as it was released. • Until the 1950s when the wet-mix process was devised. He used the method of blowing dry material out of a hose with compressed air. the alternative method for gunning by the dry method was devised with the development of the rotary gun. used to fill plaster models of animals.
The nozzleman controls the addition of water at the nozzle. especially in the case of thick or heavily reinforced sections.Dry Mix The dry mix method involves placing the dry ingredients into a hopper and then conveying them pneumatically through a hose to the nozzle. . This requires a skilled nozzleman. but is completed as the mixture hits the receiving surface. The water and the dry mixture is not completely mixed.
Compressed air is introduced at the nozzle to impel the mixture onto the receiving surface. typically ready-mixed concrete.• Wet Mix Wet-mix shotcrete involves pumping of a previously prepared concrete. to the nozzle. .
as the dry material is easily discharged from the hose. The greatest advantage of the wet-mix process is that larger volumes can be placed in less time. The dry mix process is useful in repair applications when it is necessary to stop frequently. and dust compared to the dry-mix procedure. allowing more effective placement in overhead and vertical applications without using accelerators. the wet-gun procedure generally produces less rebound.• Dry Mix v/s Wet Mix • Advantages of the dry mix process are that the water content can be adjusted instantaneously by the nozzleman. . waste (when material falls to the floor). • In the wet mix.
when using wet mix shotcrete. . impermeable and durable shotcrete. • The result is an extremely strong. Other benefits include reduced rebound. added in quantities of 8 to 13% by weight of cement. this stickiness decreases the workability of the material and superplaticizers are required to restore this workability. improved flexural strength.Steel fibre reinforced micro silica shotcrete • Silica fume or micro silica is a by-product of the ferro silicon metal industry and is an extremely fine pozzolan. can allow shotcrete to achieve compressive strengths which are double or triple the value of plain shotcrete mixes. • However. • Silica fume. improved bond with the existing structure and the ability to place layers of up to 200 mm thick in a single pass because of the shotcrete's 'stickiness'.
Steel fibre reinforced micro silica shotcrete • Steel fibre reinforced shotcrete was introduced in the 1970s and has since gained world-wide acceptance as a replacement for traditional wire mesh reinforced plain shotcrete. . • The main role that reinforcement plays in shotcrete is to impart ductility to an otherwise brittle material.
Mesh reinforced shotcrete .
Foundation Repair .
The piling serves as a platform upon which we set a jack to raise the settled portion of the foundation.• PRO-LIFT FOUNDATION REPAIR • The Pro-Lift System is a proven. it has the equivalent of a cold and might only need watering. If your foundation has suffered from permanent settlement. • 2. The Pro-Lift System uses the latest technology and the best method at every step of the foundation repair process. • Different foundation problems also require different solutions. the piling transfers the weight of the building from the unstable surface soils to deeper more stable layers. you might need foundation repairs. powerful. and permanent solution for foundation repairs. If your foundation is only suffering from minor seasonal movement. . • It serves 2 purposes: • 1.
etc.Pro-Lift Pressed Pilings with rigid steel connectors • Advantages • All the advantages of other pressed pilings. initial and final length of connector. • The rigid steel connectors help prevent horizontal movementduring and after installation. • Custom-fitted for your home with all the advantages of the Pro-Lift System.) Normal Pile. • Guarantee is backed by the Texas Foundation Warranty Trust Disadvantages • Depth can only be verified by checking contractor records (cylinder counts. • The performance of Pro-Lift pilings is gauranteed for the life of your home. Pro-lift System .
• Installation requires a minimum of 10 days.Pro-Lift Concrete Piers to twice the shaft diameter Advantages • A permanent solution when properly designed and installed. • Can require the use of heavy equipment. • Extremely difficult to install inside of buildings. • 8 to 20 feet deep and belled . • A bell at the bottom greatly increases load bearing capacity. • Alignment can be verticle or angled. • Can be very destructive to landscaping. Disadvantages • Proper installation requires expensive soil sampling and lab work. • Depth can be visually verified.
. • Guarantee is backed by the Texas Foundation Warranty Trust.• Pro-Lift Multi-wall Steel Pilings. • The performance of Pro-Lift pilings is guaranteed for the life of your home. ensuring a straight and vertical shaft. plus: • Double-walled pipe provides extra stiffness. • The load of the structure bears straight down on the piling. • The entire piling is buried and out of sight. • The concrete top assembly will not rust. Advantages • All the advantages of single-walled steel pilings. ensuring a straight shaft.
krishnaconchem.. 2179. Shotcrete practice in underground construction.W. . W.com. • “State-of-the-Art in Techniques for Rehabilitation of Buildings. J.W. • Termpaper of IIT Bombay – Recent Advances in technology of repair of concrete structures available at www.” 11 WCEE. and Wuellner. New Delhi. Paper no. Parker. Elsevier • BIS (1993).krishnaconchem. Bureau of Inidan Standards. Acapulco. IS:13935-1993 Repair and Seismic Strengthening of Buildings• Guidelines. H.Bibliography • Mahar. Jean Froncois & Alan Chaisse. • Termpaper of IIT-Rourkee . • “Shotcrete Repair in Paper Mill” by Marc Ferland.com.Advanced Repair Techniques available at www.W. 1975. Mexico.
methods of application & areas of application.• QUESTION based on PRESENTATION • What are the various advanced techniques of repair & rehabilitation of structures? Give a brief note with their salient features. .
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