This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
What does “BRUSHLESS” Generator mean?
D.C. FIELD POLES
30 years ago, A.C Generators were designed with SLIPRINGS and CARBON BRUSHES, to transfer power from the rotating component of the Generator. These had a tendency to wear out, spark, burn, with vibration or high transient load currents. ‘BRUSHLESS’ Generators are designed to allow output to be taken from the Generator WITHOUT SLIP-RINGS AND BRUSHES.
NOW LET’S LOOK AT A BRUSHLESS GENERATOR !!
Two Bearing Main Rotor Assembly
Exciter Rotor Bearing Main Rotor Fan
Housings are built into the D.E and NDE Endbrackets Bearings are sealed for life.
Air flow through Generator Air flow must not be restricted
Excitation System .All Generator types Main Stator Exciter Rotor & Stator Bearing Main Rotor Shaft Rectifier Fan .
Excitation System .Exciter Stator Exciter Stator Exciter Rotor & Stator Bearing Main Stator Main Rotor Shaft Rectifier Fan .
R Terminals COIL CONNECTIONS N S N S High-remanence steel core Stores Residual Magnetism 12-14 pole magnet field High frequency Generator .Excitation System .V.(F2) To A.Wound Exciter Stator X+ (F1) XX.
Excitation System .Exciter Rotor Exciter Rotor Main Stator Exciter Rotor & Stator Bearing Main Rotor Shaft Rectifier Fan .
C output.Exciter Rotor Assembly W U V SHAFT V U W 3 Phase A.Excitation system . . each Phase connected to 2 diodes on Main Rectifier. ( from12 to 14 Pole Exciter Stator ). Exciter generator is a magnetic power amplifier for the main rotor current. High Frequency output.
Exciter Rotor/ Main Rectifier Exciter Rotor and Main Rectifier Circuit Main Stator Exciter Rotor & Stator Bearing Main Rotor Shaft Rectifier Fan .Excitation System .
Exciter Rotor and Rectifier Assembly Wound Exciter Rotor W U Rectifier Assembly V SHAFT SHAFT V U W Rectifier Assembly Mounted on Exciter rotor Core. (drive end side). .
Exciter Rotor & Main Rectifier Assembly Exciter Rotor 3 Phase with Internal Star Point SHAFT .
Exciter Rotor & Main Rectifier Connections Rectifier Input Terminal SHAFT SHAFT 3 Phase A.C Exciter Rotor Connected to Rectifier input terminals .
Excitation System .The Main Rectifier Main Rectifier Main Stator Exciter Rotor & Stator Bearing Main Rotor Shaft Rectifier Fan .
C Input from Exciter Rotor.Main Rectifier Assembly 3 Phase A. (Insulated Terminals) Split Two-Piece Rectifier Hub Rectifier Diodes Positive Plate Cathode Stud Aluminium Heat-sinks Varistor (Surge Suppressor) SHAFT Rectifier Diodes Negative Plate Anode Stud .
Main Rectifier Assembly.Operation of a Diode A.C Input to Rectifier Diodes ( 150 HZ to 180 HZ per second) Rectifier Diode Positive Heatsink Cathode Stud +VE 0 -VE +VE 0 -VE + Rectifier Diode Negative Heatsink Anode Stud +VE 0 -VE .
3 Phase Rectification A.Main Rectifier Assembly.C input voltage .C Input to Rectifier Diodes (150 to 180HZ) + D.C output to Main Rotor Full wave 3 Phase rectification will produce a D.35 X A.C output of 1.
Metal Oxide Varistor (Surge Suppressor) Clamping @ 30 Amp 680 Volts Clamping @ 100 Amp 1365 Volts Diode Protection Device For Transient Suppression SHAFT Main Rotor Connections SHAFT .
High Transient surges can be created by: ‘ Crash’ Synchronising onto live bus-bars. caused by faulty switching. short circuits in the distribution system. Full load D. D. (lightning).C supply to Main rotor .C output from main Rectifier t = µ sec's. Electric storm.Metal Oxide Varistor (Surge Suppressor) DIODE PROTECTION DEVICE Direction of transient Typical high voltage transient created by fault condition in the distribution system. Up to 2. and field effects on overhead lines (distribution systems). Arcing. Varistor clamping (Protection) level. motor failure.3000V (peak voltage) Energy absorbed by Varistor.
Excitation System .The Main Rotor Main Rotor Main Stator Exciter Rotor & Stator Bearing Main Rotor Shaft Rectifier Fan .
C The Rectifier Output is a smooth D.C Supply across the Aluminium Heat Sinks This is fed to the Main Rotor windings .Main Rectifier Connections to Main Rotor Main Rectifier Aluminium Heat-sinks Main Rotor SHAFT D.
C Input From Main Rectifier CLOCK S N S ANTI CLOCK N CLOCK The Rotor coils are connected in Series (4 Pole Rotor shown). Each coil is reversed to the adjacent coil.Coil Group connections ANTI CLOCK D. producing the required polarity .Wound Main Rotor .
Wound Main Rotor . therefore the coil conductors in this slot will be going fully NEGATIVE N .Poles & Frequency Main Stator Coils in Slots (section) 4 Pole Main Rotor Air Gap 1 Cycle Main Stator Core (section) S N SHAFT Consider the Coils in the slot at 12 O'clock position. marked with the ARROW. The NEGATIVE Pole of the 4 pole Rotor is directly under the slot.
The coil conductors in this slot will now be at ZERO VOLTAGE. until exactly half-way between Negative and Positive Poles appears beneath the 12 O'clock position. .Poles & Frequency Main Stator Coils in Slots 4 Pole Main Rotor Air Gap 1 Cycle Main Stator Core The Rotor has now rotated Clockwise 45 º.Wound Main Rotor .
until the POSITIVE Pole is DIRECTLY UNDERNEATH the 12 O'clock position.Poles & Frequency Main Stator Coils in Slots 4 Pole Main Rotor Main Stator Core Air Gap 1 Cycle N S SHAFT The Rotor has now rotated Clockwise 90 º. S . The coil conductors in this slot will now be at the FULLY POSITIVE position The 4 Poles will produce 2 FULL CYCLES for each 360 º FULL REVOLUTION.Wound Main Rotor .
Wound Main Rotor .Poles & Frequency Generator Frequency (HZ) = Speed (N) X Pairs of poles (P) 60 4 Pole 6 Pole Available in Frame 7 2 Pole S N SHAFT N N SHAFT .
Wound Main Rotor .Poles & Frequency Generator Frequency (HZ or CYCLES) = Speed (N) X Pairs of poles (P) 60 FRQUENCY HZ (CYCLES) 50 50 50 60 60 60 NUMBER POLES (P) 2 4 6 2 4 6 ENGINE SPEED (N) 3000 1500 1000 3600 1800 1200 2 Pole 1 HZ = 60 RPM 4 Pole 1 HZ = 30 RPM 6 Pole 1 HZ = 20 RPM .
Amortisseur (Damper) Windings S N SHAFT (Damper Bars) (Aluminium Damper Bars Welded to End Plates ) N .Main Rotor.
Amortisseur (Damper) Windings S N SHAFT Helps dampen speed oscillations resulting from cyclic irregularities in the engine. Improves Harmonic Distortion in the Generator waveform N . (cause of ‘light flicker’). Stabilises load sharing with other Generators in Parallel. Stabilises the mechanical systems during large load changes.Main Rotor.
Main Stator Main Stator Main Stator Exciter Rotor & Stator Bearing Main Rotor Shaft Rectifier Fan .Operation .
125 º C Temperature rise in 40º Ambient.Wound Main Stator Assembly Core built from high grade Electrical Steel. or Dedicated Windings. Harmonics virtually eliminated. Laminated Steel core Output Leads Copper Windings . 6 Ends out Star / Delta. Each lamination is electrically insulated to minimise Eddy Currents in the core. Class ‘H’ Insulation as standard. 2/3rds Pitch windings. 12 Ends Out Re-connectable. to reduce Iron losses (heat).
the stator core length. the velocity of the magnetic field (rotor). and the strength of the magnetic field. and number of conductors in parallel.Wound Main Stator Assembly Stator Winding Coils (Lap winding) COIL PHASE GROUP OUTPUT CONDUCTORS OUTPUT CONDUCTORS COIL END (OVERHANG) STATOR CORE LENGTH COIL SPAN (PITCH) COIL TURNS The output voltage of the stator is determined by the number of turns per coil. . The Current capacity of the coil is determined by the conductor cross sectional area.
13) S N SHAFT N MAIN ROTOR (4 POLE) MAIN STATOR WINDING SECTION ( 48 SLOT ) .Typical Main Stator 12 Wire Re-connectable WINDING LEADS START OF COIL GROUP WINDING LEADS FINISH OF COIL GROUP 2/3RDS PITCH 8 SLOTS ( SPAN 1 TO 9) ONE PHASE GROUP ( 4 COILS PER GROUP) FULL PITCH 12 SLOTS ( SPAN 1 .
Typical Main Stator 12 Wire Re-connectable Connections shown in Series Star N 6 V6 Neutral W V U W1 3 Phase Output V1 AVR Sensing & Power supply 7 from Main Stator 8 U1 .
690 Volt for Co-Generation. or the customer.. The groups can be connected by Newage.Wound Main Stator 12 Wire Re-connectable Series Star Voltage Range 380 to 440 V @ 50 HZ 416 to 480 V @ 60 HZ U1 U1 U2 U5 Parallel Star U 8 U5 Voltage Range 190 to 220 V @ 50 HZ 208 to 240 V @ 60 HZ U 8 U2 U6 W6 U6 V6 N W2 V2 W1 N 6 W2 W1 V6 V5 W5 7 V5 V1 6 W6 V2 W5 V1 w v w 7 v The stator windings are connected into six groups. . to provide different voltage requirements. Special Voltage requirements require special windings.g. e.
240 to 277 V @ 60 HZ No Neutral connection. 240 to 277 V @ 60 HZ Single Phase Only. output across U & W Centre Tap (N) for low volts 110 to 125 @ 50 HZ. 120 to 138 @ 60 HZ . Centre Tap for low volts 1ph only Voltage Range 220 to 250 V @ 50 HZ.Wound Main Stator 12 Wire Re-connectable Series Delta Centre Tap Double Delta 6 8 6 7 8 7 N Voltage Range 220 to 250 V @ 50 HZ.
(all coil groups in each phase are in parallel). 18. 416 to 480 V @ 60 HZ Single Phase (N) = 3 of Phase voltage Dropper transformer required for AVR sensing 8 U1 U2 Number of Stator leads in parallel increases with current rating of generator. . 24. 36. N W2 V2 6 W1 V1 7 w v Each phase group is producing the full line voltage. ie: 12. or 48 leads out.Wound Main Stator 6 Ends Out Star U Voltage Range 380 to 440 V @ 50 HZ.
which is fitted in the main terminal box.R for STAR connection U Examples . to supply the AVR with the correct voltage adjustment range .V.Wound Main Stator 6 Ends Out Sensing Supply to A. Other windings producing higher voltage requirements will require a different transformer ratio.6 ends Stators 380 to 440 V @ 50 HZ 416 to 480 V @ 60 HZ Single Phase (N) = 3 of L-L U1 8 U2 Isolation transformer N 8 V2 W2 W1 V1 7 7 w 6 v 6 The AVR Sensing supply is connected to the main stator via a sensing isolation transformer.
The Voltage Range is decided by many inter-dependant design considerations. .Main Stator Windings -Voltage Ranges The output voltage of the generator is set by adjustment of the AVR Voltage trimmer. The potential voltage range of the AVR can be much higher or lower than the design limits for the Generator windings.
C Excitation Current .Main Stator Windings -Voltage Ranges OPEN CIRCUIT MAGNETISING CURVE Each Winding is designed to operate within a specified Voltage Range. The Generator must operate within the Optimum Voltage Range for the Windings. Generator Output Voltage Maximum flux level Middle flux level Minimum Flux Level Output Voltage From Generator Open Circuit Magnetisation Curve Saturation 0 D.
C Output From A.V.V.(F2) A.Excitation System .R Into Exciter Stator XX.R Main Stator Exciter Rotor & Stator Bearing Main Rotor Shaft Rectifier Fan .Self Excited Generators X+ (F1) D.C Power & Feedback Signal (Sensing) From Main Stator A.
50 or 60 HZ Exciter Stator ( Residual Magnetism) Main Stator 1 or 3 ph.V.C. 2 or 3 Phase sensing AVR Output D.C Main Rotor D.C XXMain Rectifier To Load Terminals Generator Output A.R Automatic Voltage Regulator X+ D.C to D.Excitation System . A.Self Excited Generators AVR Input Power & Sensing 170 . Magnetic Flux Exciter Rotor 3ph A.C A.C.C.250 Volts A. Shaft .C A.C.
UNAFFECTED BY ADVERSE LOADING CONDITIONS SUCH AS WAVEFORM DISTORTION CAUSED BY NON LINEAR LOADS POWERFUL VOLTAGE BUILD UP SYSTEM ON INITIAL RUN-UP (DOES NOT RELY UPON RESIDUAL MAGNETISM) CAPABLE OF VOLTAGE BUILD UP AGAINST LOAD (FREQUENCY STARTING OF LARGE MOTORS). (REQUIREMENT FOR ALL MARINE CLASSIFICATIONS). ISOLATED POWER SUPPLY FOR THE AVR.Separately Excited Generators ADVANTAGES OF SEPARATE EXCITATION SYSTEM SUSTAINED SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT UNDER FAULT CONDITIONS. (PROTECTS AVR FROM TRANSIENT CONDITIONS IN THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM) .
THANK “U” Manufacturing Engineering Department (MED) .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.