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15 million

A History of Urban Residential Planning of Dhaka

Kamrup 7th-8th C Sena Kings 9th C Dhaka

Lakshmi Bazar
Shankhari Bazar Tanti Bazar Turks and Pathan 1299-1608

Pre Mughal Period

High Income Residence Low Income Residence

Ibrahim Khan (1616-1620) Shaista Khan (1662-1689) Old Fort : Nucleus of the city Shopping Centres: Bangla Bazar and Chauk Cottage industries Tejgaon: Manufacturing centre Low Income Dulai khal, Buriganga River, Pill Khana and Mahut Tuli High Income Bakshi bazaar

Population 1 million

Mughal Period

Inception British Rule 1765 Decline Famine, Flood and Fires Fall in trade

1859

The Appointment of Sir Patrick Geddes in 1906 Plan never adopted Revival by Charles Dawes Race Course in Ramna 1825 Widening of road , new buildings for administration and education near Victoria park University of Dhaka 1921 Expansion of low income residence towards Nawabganj

High Income Residence Middle Income Residence Low Income Residence

Middle income residence: Bakshi Bazar, Dewan Bazar, Nawab Katra, Aga Sadeq Road, Begum Bazat, Armanitola, Bangla Bazar & Lakshmi Bazar High income residence: By the banks of Buriganga for half a mile from North brook hall to the Ahsan Manzil Gandaria, Wari, Purana Paltan Introduction: Grid pattern road at Wari & Gandaria

1905 - 1911

1959: DACCA MASTER PLAN


The first comprehensive master plan By the firm Minupria & Macfarlane in 1958 Objective Establish planning principles Failure Unusual growth, increase of population and changes in socio-political conditions

Pakistan created 14th Aug 1947, Dhaka Capital 103% increase of population Expansion: From 6 sq. miles in 1947 to 25 sq. miles in 1962. The city was planned for l0 lakh people in 1959

New official buildings in Ramna area


Government quarters/colony built in Dhakeshwari, Polashi Barrack,Bajar Bagh, Shantinagar, Motijheel and Azimpur area; Shiddheshwari, Kakrail - Kamlapur Purana Paltan Naya Paltan, Eskaton Mogbazar, Shiddheswari, Kakrail Kamlapur, Rajar Bagh, Shegun Bagicha New Dhaka Motijheel and national stadium established in 1954 Dhanmondi 1955 Belt towards Mohammadpur & Mirpur Low lying settlement at East and West Private Development e.g Bashundhara Slums

High Income Residence Middle Income Residence Low Income Residence

1981: DHAKA METROPOLITAN AREA INTEGRATED URBAN DEVELOPMENT


The master plan -1959 Out of fashion Impossible to control vast unplanned development Focus Planning the storm water drainage and flood problems of Dhaka metropolitan area Planning on acquiring developed land were done to ensure linear growth of settlement

1995: DHAKA METROPOLITAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN


By Mott Macdonald in association with Culpin Planning Ltd 4 major components Strategic Growth Structure Plan Urban Area Plan Detailed Area Plan
Long Term strategy plan for 20 years to 2015

Implementation of Flood Action Plan Peripheral expansion on east and west of Suburban & Agricultur land Northern area Wealthier groups

Land Formation Map

DAP Land Use Plan

Land Use in 2004

Private Housing Approved by Gov.

Public Housing

Private Housing disapproved by

Illegal Housing

Superimpo

Problems
Inadequate supply of land and its inelasticity Less than 30% of the households of the city own more than 80% of the total land. The government can meet only 7% of the total demand, whereas private sector entertains the bulk of 93% of the total housing demand. The developers buy land at low price and sale it about more than 15 times high rate Lack of government monitoring Poor transport network Costly transport cost compared to income

Competitive and alternative use of land

Planned
Wari Ramna Dhanmondi Gulshan Banani Mirpur Uttara Khilgaon Mohakhali East Rampura Reazbagh

Unplanned
Meradia Shahjaharipur Malibag Purana Paltan Kathal Bagan Jahanara Imam Saranee Siddeshwari New Eskaton Moghbazar Chairman Goli Shegun Bagicha Paribagh

Baridhara Residential Area, Diplomatic


The area is basically a residential area, even though a large number of structures are found under nonresidential use
On the south of the Baridhara Residential Area lies Diplomatic

There seems to be a trend towards ribbon like informal

Shahjadpur-Badda
Shahjadpur-Badda is an informal or spontaneously developed private residential area It is a medium density mixed area with all the ills of unorganized development Roads are narrow and tortuous.
The area is dominated by the middle and lower middle income groups of people

Uttara Model Town in Dhaka City


The satellite town was created to solve the housing problem of middle class in the 70s modelled on housing solutions done on 60s in the central area and northern areas of Dhaka city. The project failed to serve the middle class as a whole. Almost 75% of the plots were not inhabited by 80s. People with the ability to invest purchased plots that were left unused since most applicants were government service holders living in government housing

Dhanmondi
Exclusively as residential At the initial stage, the idea was that in each plot the owner would build a one or two storey house. However, in response to tremendous pressure on city land after the year 1972, the restriction was relaxed to the point of virtual nonapplication Currently more than half are used for commercial and other purposes

Mohakhali
Mohakhali is predominantly commercial with few residential zones

Location 6
Concentration on the western side of the planning area. Development prior to 1990 occurred mainly along the sides of four main roads namely-KhilkhetNampara road, Kawla road, Ashkona road and Shahid Latif road. Location of Settlement and cost of land direct relationship between land level and proximity to

Slums
In early 1990 majority of the slums were located on public lands and later 90s the government Many slums were evicted from public properties.

77% of Slums on private lands. 60% of 15 million people in dhaka live in slums These disappointments are because Land speculation and unfair land ownership pattern Lack of understanding of the peoples socio economic condition Lack of implementation, capacity and resources Lack of political support and interests

Singapore

"Dhaka gained its current shape as millions sought to convert the space to meet their need to find dwelling and livelihood. In the process they defied all the grids and designs proposed by the urban planners. The beauty of Dhaka is that it functions at all.

University of Asia Pacific


Aroni Roy Tanvir Chowdhury Anjuman Rehana Usha