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A GUIDE TO FOOD MEAT CUTS OF BEEF SELECTION PREPARATION AND CARABEEF AND PRESERVATION

The chuck or paypoy contains the square-cut

Shoulder and the top five ribs, the arm, the blade bones, and the neck bones.
The brisket or puntay pecho has layers of lean

and fat and pieces of breast bone.

The short loin or sotomillo consist of the

backbone and sometimes the last rib. This is the cut that yields the beef steaks-porter house, Tbone and club steak.

The flank or kamto is lean and tough and contains a high percentage of fat. The loin end or tagilirang hulihan lies between th rump and the short loin and yields sirloin steaks, pin bones, wedge bones, and flat bones. The rump or tapadera is the rear part behind the appear sirloin.
The ribs or tadyang is a fatty cut whose meat is ground hamburgers.

The round or piermacosta is oval shaped with a small round and a high proportion of lean and fat roast cut. The sirloin tip or kadera is from the bottom and round and the lower sirloin. The fore shank or kenchi or pata is a very bony piece that contains a high percentage of cartilage and connective tissues.

PORK CUTS

Jowl or kalamnan is the loose flesh about the lower jaw or throat with a high percentage of fat. Boston Butt or paypay cut from the upper shoulder, has a compact shape and is easy to slice. The loin or lomo is a long cut that extends along the backbone of the animal. This may be cut into smaller loin roasts known locally as ostilla!s

The picnic or kasim is cut from the lower portion of the shoulder of the animal that has more bone in proportion to leanmeat. The bacon side or liyempo is cut from the belly portion of the long carcass, usually cured and sold in slices or slabs. The ham or pigi is composed of the butt or shank end . "t contains a higher proportion of lean to bone.

The spare rib or Buto sa tadyang is taken form the belly portion of the animal# it contains a large proportion of bones. The shanks (fore shank and bind shank) or pata are the pig$s legs, considered by the %ilipinos as a delicacy, they contain a high percentage of cartilage and connective tissue.

n # o L o m (Lo )

*am ) # ) # P (

Ta#l (( ntot )

Boston B tt (Pa!"a!) Jowl (Kalamna n) P#$n#$ Fo'&s+an (Kas# ,

Ba S#% $on &

(L# !&m & "o) ' a *n%s+an, S" s ( # (Pata) R to s a (B

PORK CUTS

Meat is cooked to make it more palatable and digestible to tenderi&e meat it must be cooked with heat. 'ry heat seldom softens meat and overcooking even with dry heat toughens the flesh. (igh temperatures and extended cooking even with moisture is not advisable. 'oneness can be judged by the outside and inside appearances of the meat.

There are six stages of doneness.


1.

Very rare. )nly a thin portion around the edge of the meat is fully cooked *ed, almost bloody juices oo&e out. +nder finger pressure, the meat feels soft and jelly-like inside. are. The raw, red portion of the meat is small and around it is pink# there is good brown outer surface. The meat has a full, plump appearance and gives in to pressure# juices are red but not bloody.

2.

,. Medium rare. The interior portion is rich pink and exudes juice of the same color. The meat is still plump and firm# the amount of gray outer surface has increased. -. Medium. The interior color of the meat is a modified rose. .ink juices are apparent but less. The exterior portion is well-browned. The surface does not appear plump or full. /hen pressed, there is definite resistance.

Coo,#n) T&$+n#- &s

The

extent of its tenderness largely dictates how meat should be cooked. Tender cuts are usually cooked by dry heat and tough cuts by moist heat. Some tough cuts may be treated mechanically with tenderi&ers to make them soft, and then be cooked by dry-heat methods.

'ry heat methods are0

1. 2roiling, pan broiling, or griddle broiling 3. *oasting or baking ,. 2arbecuing -. Saut4ing, pan frying or grilling 5. 'eep-%rying 6. )veni&ing

7oist heat methods are0 2raising 8pot roasting, fricassing, casseroling, and stewing. Simmering Steaming 2lanching

1. 3. ,. -.

.rinciples of cooking meat0


1.

7eat should be immediately removed from wrapping paper because paper absorbs the juice of meat. Soaking meat in a pan of cold water for a long period of time draws out the meat juices.

3. 9ow to moderate heat is the best cooking temperature for meat. Such temperature produces a tender and :avorful product, minimi&es meat shrinkage and retains much of its nutritive value.

,. Tough cuts of meat must be cooked with moisture or in water at low temperature for a longer period of time.

-. .ressure-cooking meat results in decreased cooking time. (owever, the process reduces the color and :avor of food produced by ordinary cooking. ;evertheless, these qualities can be attained by the use of other food materials such as spices, sauces, and vegetables.

5. /hen defrosting or thawing fro&en meat, one should not remove its wrapping to prevent the growth of bacteria.

6. .ork should always be thoroughly cooked because it may contain harmful pathogenic organisms or small worm harmful to the human body.

<. 7eat is done when the heat necessary to bring about desired changes in color, texture, and :avor has penetrated to the center of the piece.

=. Ground meat will cook in a much shorter time because its connective tissues have been broken making it more tender. 9. /hen broiling meat, one must keep the >re very hot and turn the meat every two or three minutes to keep it at proper temperature.

?uestion0 1. contains

the square-cut Shoulder and the top five ribs, the arm, the blade bones, and the neck bones.
@nswer0 chuck or paypoy

3. is

a fatty cut whose meat is ground hamburgers.


@nswer0 ribs or tadyang

,. is the loose flesh about the lower jaw or


throat with a high percentage of fat.
@nswer0 Jowl or kalamnan

-. is

the rear part behind the upper sirloin.


@nswer0 rump or tapadera

5. The

interior color of the meat is a modified rose.


@nswer0 Medium

6. is taken form the belly portion of the animal# it contains a large proportion of bones.
@nswer0

spare rib or Buto sa tadyang

<. The

raw, red portion of the meat is small and around it is pink# there is good brown outer surface.

@nswer0

are

=. is

cooked to make it more palatable and digestible to tenderi&e meat it must be cooked with heat.
@nswer0 Meat

A. )nly a thin portion around the edge of the meat is fully cooked *ed, almost bloody juices oo&e out.
@nswer0 Very rare

1B. is a long cut that extends along the backbone of the animal.
@nswer0 loin or lomo