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• To make a microprocessor do something, we must have a place to store the program which tells it what to do, and we must have a place to store the data it works on and the answers it makes. • All of this takes place in the microprocessor’s main memory. • Today’s microprocessor’s main memory is made up of many memory IC’s. • It’s either read-write and read only random access memory (RAM).

• We call this the microprocessor’s main memory. . we often find that there’s only one addressable memory space. • The term RAM (random access memory) simply means a memory system in which any memory location can be accessed as easily as any other memory location.Random-Access Read-Write Memories • In today’s microprocessor.

• To access a memory location in a sequential access memory.Random-Access Read-Write Memories • If a memory system is not random access. (Magnetic Tape) . • Sequential-access memory id no longer used for microprocessor main memory. you must access every memory location between the present memory location you are addressing and the memory location that you want to read from or write to. then it is sequential access or some mixture of both.

Memory Access Time & Memory Cycle Time • Both these are measures of the memory system’s performance. the faster the access time. • The two measures go hand in hand – that is. . the faster the memory cycle.

.Read Access Time (Read Time) • Tells us how long a memory system takes to place information on the data bus after the desired memory location is addressed.

Write Access Time • Measures how long it takes a memory system to write data into the addressed memory location. .

.Cycle Time • Is the shortest possible time between two operations which access the memory.

g. Bootstrap or Boot program – E.g. Magnetic Tape and Magnetic Disc . • Non-volatile – retains data even if the power is removed. – E.Volatile or Non-volatile • Volatile memory loses its data when power is removed from the microcomputer system.

• Each data bit is stored in a small doughnut shaped permanent magnet. The magnet is magnetized in one or two directions.Core Memory • Is also non-volatile memory. . The direction depends on the current flowing through the memory wires.

.Bipolar Memories • Are seldom used with microprocessor system. • Draws a great deal of power. The advantage is of these types of memories is very fast access time.

• It’s either dynamic or static in nature. .MOS Memory • Is by far the most common microcomputer memory.

SRAM • Are simpler to build. They are much easier to service. . especially for small memory systems.

DRAM • Use lower cost integrated circuits but require more support circuits. . They are usually used in larger memory systems. • Requires memory to be refreshed regularly.

TTL (Flip-Flop) .

Row and Column .

Static Memory .

Dynamic Memory .

Dynamic RAM IC .

EPROM’s & EAROM’s • Read Only Memory • Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory • Electrically Alterable Read-Only Memory .ROM’s.




DMA • Direct Memory Access • It is one way to accomplish high speed data transfers into memory .

MMU • Memory Management Unit .

Paging & Other Memory Extension Techniques .

EMS • Expanded Memory Specification .