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5 Intermolecular Forces
Recognise the different kinds of IMFs. Describe how IMFs take place. Relate physical properties of materials to IMFs.

Types of Bonds
CHEMICAL (Strong bonds)
Ionic Covalent (+ dative covalent) Metallic

PHYSICAL (weak bonds)

Induced dipoles (London Forces) permanent dipoles Instantaneous dipoles hydrogen bonds

Definitions
Intermolecular Forces are the forces of attraction between molecules. Dipole is created by equal but opposite charges that are separated by a short distance. The force of attraction between two polar molecules is known as a DipoleDipole Force.

Non-polar Molecule Cl2

in any liquid or solid there are bonds between molecules. Called intermolecular bonds. Intermolecular bonds need to be broken for a substance to melt or boil. The stronger the bonds, more energy is needed to break them. (resulting in higher melting and boiling temps)

Smaller atoms exert more pull on bonding electrons as the nucleus is closer. When different atoms are bonded the pull on electrons is determined by the relative core charges of the atoms.

Dipole Dipole bonds


Molecules with permanent dipoles have atoms with different electronegativity values. Slightly negative end of a molecule attracts to the slightly positive end of another molecule, therefore an intermolecular bond occurs:

dipole dipole bond Used in holding polyester together

Hydrogen Halides
The hydrogen halides are colourless gases at room temperature, producing steamy fumes in moist air.

Dipole Dipole bonds present


+

HCl
polar

HCl

- +

HCl

Resulting in high boiling points

polar molecules
Dipole - Dipole Interactions

London Forces or Van der Waals Forces


Forces of attraction between two non polar molecules (charge distribution)

Temporary or instantaneous dipoles


If a molecule does not have a permanent dipole the electron density in the molecule may be unevenly distributed at any one time it has an instantaneous dipole.

If other molecules are close to a molecule with a dipole these may cause an effect and produce an induced dipole.

Induced dipole-dipole forces


Even in molecules with no polar bonds, there are temporary dipoles due to uneven electron distribution due to the constant movement of electrons.
This induces a temporary dipole in a neighbouring molecule, producing a temporary induced dipoledipole attraction. The bigger the molecule (i.e. the more electrons), the greater the induced dipole-dipole.

instantaneous dipole induced dipole bonds


Weakest type of intermolecular bond. Can happen in all types of molecules.
Krypton atoms: electrons continually moving, creating instantaneous dipoles. When other krypton atoms approach an atom with an instantaneous dipole they will produce an induced dipole. Because the electrons are continually moving these bonds are continually forming and breaking. The more electrons an atom has the greater the attractions (therefore higher boiling and melting points).

Instantaneous dipole induced dipole

Poly(ethene) has instantaneous dipole induced dipole bonds


-These kind of forces occur between poly(ethene) -Yet poly(ethene) is a solid at room temperature

Because:

-Chains are long -Can pack closely together -Therefore lots of bonds

(although bonds initially very weak)

Quick Questions
Would you expect xenon or krypton to have the higher boiling point?
Xenon more electrons, so instantaneous dipole induced dipole larger, more energy is needed to pull xenon atoms apart.

How do instantaneous dipole-induced dipole bonds arise between molecules of hydrogen?


At any one moment the electron cloud can be unevenly distributed causing an instantaneous dipole, electrons in a nearby H can be attracted or repelled causing an induced dipole. The +ve and ve ends of these two molecules are temporarily attracted.

What is the strongest type of intermolecular bond between molecules of ethane?


instantaneous dipole induced dipole bonds

Hydrogen bonds
A strong intermolecular force it is NOT a bond!
In a hydrogen bond atoms held together because nuclei are both attracted to the bonding pair.

Large dipole between a small hydrogen atom and a highly electronegative atom (such as O, F or N)

3 things needed for a hydrogen bond


A large dipole between an H atom and a highly electronegative atom (O, N or F) The small H atom which can get very close to O, N, or F atoms in nearby molecules. A lone pair of electrons on the O, N or F atom, with which the positively charged H atom can line up.

Liquids with hydrogen bonds have:

a higher than expected viscosity. (glycerol x3 OH groups) are often soluble in water (H-bond between H20 and substance) helps fibres absorb water (wool O and N atoms H-bond to water)

Liquids with hydrogen bonds


Liquids with hydrogen bonds have:

-a higher than expected viscosity. (glycerol x3 OH groups)


- are often soluble in water (H-bond between H20 and substance)

- helps fibres absorb water (wool O and N atoms H-bond to water)

HF HCl HBr HI

+600C -1200C -850C -200C

Explain the trend in boiling points of the Hydrogen Halides, HCl HI Why does HF have a higher than expected value.

HF HCl HBr HI

+600C -1200C -850C -200C

Explain the trend in boiling points of the Hydrogen Halides, HClHCl HI Down the group HI: the atomic radius increases and the
surface area increases so there is more area for more IMF forces to form. Also HI has the strongest induced dipole forces because it has the greatest number of electrons, thus requiring more energy to break and have a higher boiling point.

Why HF because have a ithigher than to expected value. HF is does a lot higher has the ability hydrogen bond
which is a much stronger intermolecular force.

Trends
increasing surface area = increasing boiling point Increasing Molecular/Atomic mass = increasing boiling point

Longer straight chain = higher boiling temp

Volatility
Alcohols have higher boiling points (less volatile) than their corresponding alkane. Why?
As well as the IMF that form between both alcohols and alkanes, alcohols can form hydrogen bonds. The electronegative oxygen can hydrogen bond to the partially positive hydrogen of near by molecule.