Experiences of ISFOC on Concentration Photovoltaic

Francisca Rubio ISFOC R&D Director Standard presentation - Only for internal use -

Outline
• Concentration photovoltaic • ISFOC
– Creation – R&D plan

• First results
– Degradation study – O&M issues – CPV and PV comparison

• CPV advantages • Conclusions

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Definition
The Concentration Photovoltaic (CPV) concentrates the radiation into the cell using an optical component

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Advantages
Cells much smaller than the traditional one => Less material needed Possibility to use a more efficient cell (III-V multijunction technology (40% instead of 20%)

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GaInAs.Cell Multijunction cell: GaInP. Ge Better use of the spectrum Courtesy A.GENESIS FV 5 . Luque. Project CONSOLIDER .

Optic LENS: Fresnel WITH SECONDARY OPTICS Cell 6 .

Optic PARABOLA: Cell 45º 7 .

Optic TIR: TOTAL INTERNAL REFLEXION Secondary optic cell TIR lens silicone 8 .

Optic New optical concepts(XR. XRI…) 40 mm mirror Cell 15 mm mirror mirror Secondary optic Ga As cell 9 .

Heatsink Passive refrigeration: Heatsink 10 .

Heatsink Active cooling 11 .

Trackers One axis trackers: Only for low concentration 12 .

Trackers Two axis trackers 13 .

Trackers Other technologies 14 .

Module Light into cell Multijunction cell receives the light Cells with heatsink and lens Final module Pictures by Courtesy of Concentrix 15 .

Launching ISFOC UPM-IES SIC 16 .

ISFOC: Mission To become a centre of reference that provides reliable information to the entire world on the power and productivity of commercial CPV systems. Train a group of experts capable of promoting both high level research and local industrial development by means of setting up pilot photovoltaic concentration plants. 17 .

3 MW awarded to 4 companies Construction of HQ Building and laboratories Recruitment of key personnel SECOND PHASE: Projects and Operation Operation and Maintenance of the power plants R&D plan deployment New projects   18 .ISFOC        FIRST PHASE: ISFOC Establishment First International call for tenders in 2006  1.7 MW awarded to 3 companies Second International call for tenders in 2007  1.

Manufacturers 300kW 500kW 300kW 500kW 300kW 400kW 400kW 19 .

Infrastructures Almoguera (Guadalajara) SOLFOCUS 300 Kw Puertollano (Ciudad Real) HQ and 800kW ISOFOTÓN CONCENTRIX SOLFOCUS Puertollano 2 SOITEC 300 Kw Second Call for tenders 20 .

About ISFOC 1st and 2nd Phase ISFOC Project Installations (3MW) Puertollano I 800kW installed and connected to the grid Almoguera 300kW installed and connected to the grid Puertollano II 1.130kW installed 100 kW under construction 400 kW free for new systems 21 .

About ISFOC 1st and 2nd Phase ISFOC Project Installations (3MW) Puertollano I 800kW installed and connected to the grid Almoguera 300kW installed and connected to the grid Puertollano II 1.130kW installed 100 kW under construction 400 kW free for new systems 22 .

130kW installed 100 kW under construction 400 kW free for new systems 23 .About ISFOC 1st and 2nd Phase ISFOC Project Installations (3MW) Puertollano I 800kW installed and connected to the grid Almoguera 300kW installed and connected to the grid Puertollano II 1.

Infrastructures – Puertollano I Laboratories Offices Maintenance 24 .

Life cycle Design Recycling Manufacturing Standards Operation & Maintenance Working mode Transport Not working mode Construction & Installations Module assembly 25 .

R&D plan Standards Measurement Technology Maintenance & Recycling Concentrator improvement Solar radiation Dissemination Training & Consultancy Environment 26 .

MASDAR: R&D Activities MASDAR: Bilateral project with MASDAR for the installations of 800 kW of CPV Activities . CONFIDENTIAL 27 .Engineering Works supervision .Call for tenders and contract definition .Training of the Masdar personal .Evaluation and acceptation of the installed plants -Definition and installations of the meteorological stations -Development of a Data Base to analyze the data of all the locations.

Services  1) Development phase:  . 2) Characterization phase ..Engineering ..Indoor and outdoor characterization .Pre-certification qualification tests . FMEA.Yield & production study . etc.Solar resource and meteorology study .Outdoor performance study 3) Validation phase .Design review..Monitoring .Evaluation and follow-up of the demo plant .Certification tests 4) Demonstration and commercial plants ..

Tracker issues 29 .

Spanish working group and IEC WG7 are working in new standards for tracker specification and qualification to improve the tracker’s design Most of the tracker issues by ISFOC have already been solved 30 .O&M issues Tracker issues solutions ISFOC.

Outline 31 .

O&M issues Protection and wiring issues explanation The most important issues are linked with switches and overgeneration Solution: Good design of the installations Pareto Chart 40 36 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% h f n t lu re wi tc tio h O th er a rn t itc fa i er s of ou Failure Occurrence Frequency 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 ls en sw bu ne ra r-g ns ge sf or m tio O ve te c p r-t em Tr an O ve C pr o C on t ac er to r Incident Type % Cumulative 32 D .

O&M issues Module issues: Very few modules found with minor issues generally not affecting production SOLVED IN THE PRESENT COMERTIAL GENERATION 33 .

Qualification tests needed to avoid the tracker’s failures .Most of the Operation failures come from the trackers .Many failures can be solved after reparation . which can be solved with the experience in demonstration plants 34 .Very few failures in modules.O&M issues Conclusions .

14.16.9299 Energy 2011 Lineal (Energy 2011) y = 0.9314 Energy 2010 Lineal (Energy 2010) y = 0.988 R2 = 0.Almost the same slope in the 3 years => No visible degradation .121x .13.9471 Energy (kWh) 80 60 40 20 0 0 200 400 600 DNI (Wh/m2) 800 1000 1200 35 .1204x .945 R2 = 0.452 R2 = 0.Performance depending of the DNI Yearly degradation Energy 2009 Lineal (Energy 2009) 120 100 y = 0.1211x .Degradation study Hourly production comparison shows no degradation after 3 year .

00 250.00 300.00 Production (kWh/kWp) Radiation (kWh/m2) CPV Fix PV Track PV DNI 36 .00 150.00 200.00 50.00 100.00 0.2009 350.CPV vs PV production CPV production much higher than tracked PV during summer in Puertollano in 2009 Monthly Production CPV vs PV 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 jan feb mar apr may jun jul aug sept oct nov dec Puertollano .

00 1200.CPV vs PV production Similar production for CPV and tracked PV in Puertollano in 2009 Cummulated Production CPV vs PV 2000 1800 1600 2000.00 0.00 400.00 800.00 1000.00 1800.00 Production (kWh/kWp) Radiation (kWh/m2) 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 jan feb mar apr may jun jul aug sept oct nov dec Puertollano .00 600.00 1600.00 Cum CPV Cum Fix PV Cum Track PV Cum DNI 37 .00 200.2009 1400.

Results: CPV – PV efficiency • CPV efficiency increases with the DNI. • PV efficiency decreases Figure 9: Monthly Efficiency versus DNI in Puertollano in CPV and tracked PV between the months of January 2010 and July 2010 CONFIDENTIAL 38 .

CPV vs PV Conclusions .Fix PV has always less production than CPV and tracked PV systems .Very similar production level between CPV and tracked PV systems in Puertollano. with the CPV rated at 850 W/m2 . which is a medium sunny region.Much better production of CPV in very sunny months 39 .

CPV market CPV is desirable for high radiation location and all sizes plants source: Prometheus Institute .

DNI – Direct radiation map Many high radiation locations in the world for CPV market .

Flexible Layout Sites .No Water Usage for Electricity Generation 42 .No Permanent Shadowing .Other advantages Enviromental advantages .Minimal Impact to Land .Dual Land Usage .

Other advantages Production during the peak demand 43 .

Better efficiency => Less number of modules. trackers and land .Better performance than PV in sunny and hot countries .Lower degradation (to be demonstrated) 44 .Biggest advantages Performance .Production during the whole day .

CPV manufacturers CPV Companies American CPV Amonix Boeing Chromasun Concentrating Technologies Cool earth Solar Edtek EMCORE Energy Innovations Enfocus Engineering Entech GreenVolts IBM JX Crystal Opel International Pyron Solar Scaled Solar Semprius Skyline SolarTech Solfocus Soliant Energy SUNRGI Xtreme Energetics ZettaSun Menova Morgan Solar Heliofocus MST Verilite Zenithsolar Zyrtech solar Company location USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA Canada Canada Israel Israel Israel Israel Israel CPV Companies Company location Abengoa Solar Spain BSQ Spain Concentralia Spain Foton HC Spain Isofoton Spain On sun Systems Spain Renovalia CPV Spain Sol 3G Spain Soltec Spain Zytech solar Spain Angelantoni Italy CPOWER Italy ENEA Italy Magpower Portugal Martifer Portugal Heliotrop France Concentrix Germany Solar Tec AG Germany Absolicon Sweden Circadian Solar UK Silicon CPV UK Whitfield Solar UK Sichuan Zhonghan Solar Power Co. Ltd China Suntrix China ES System Korea Daido Steel Japan Sharp Solar Japan Arima ECO Taiwan Compsolar Taiwan Delta Electronics Taiwan Everphoton Energy Taiwan Spirox Taiwan Concentrating Solar Systems Australia Green and Gold Energy Australia Solar Systems Australia 45 .

9% efficient module • Amonix expects to be the first III-V based CPV module to be officially listed in the Progress in PV Efficiency Tables • Several companies are reporting module efficiencies > 30% .Industry Progress – installations & modules • Amonix installed 40 MW (AC) in 2011 • Semprius announced 33.

Challenges • CPV should demonstrate: – Reliability – O&M Data – Strong reference investors needed – Bankability • Pressure on CPV due to PV price reduction – Cost reduction of the system – Target: 2 $/Watt – 1.5 $/Watt .

Conclusions       Technology ready Life time cycle learning ISFOC Positioning First installations and R&D plan CPV production higher than PV production in sunny locations O&M and Degradation study    CPV advantages CPV challenges & roadmap CPV IS STARTING THE DEPLOYMENT WITH VERY BIG PLANTS! 48 .

frubio@isfoc.com Pol. La Nava 13500 Puertollano (Ciudad Real) SPAIN +34 926 441 673 THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION!!! .

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