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Teori Perkembangan Bahasa dan Pertuturan

Prof. Dr. Nor Hashimah Hashim Prof. Madya Yahya Che Lah Dr. Aznan Che Ahmad Pusat Pengajian Ilmu Pendidikan, USM
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Teori Perkembangan Bahasa


1. Behaviorist (Watson, Thondike, Skinner, Bloomfield) 2. Nativist/maturational (Rousseau, Chomsky, Lennenberg)

3. Constructivist/interactionist (Piaget, Bruner)


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1. Behaviorist View
Skinner (1957) language is a collection of verbal operants acquired through stimulusresponse-reward conditioning and emitted as a function of various sorts of stimuli. Habituated to the use of language, children recognise its use as a means of gaining control over their environment and for receiving constant reinforcement

Teori Behavioris
Bahasa dikuasai melalui proses pengulangan, iaitu mengulang sebanyak mungkin sesuatu kemahiran bahasa sehingga menjadi suatu biasaan. Teori ini berasaskan kepada cara pemerolehan bahasa pertama oleh seorang kanak-kanak. Seorang kanak-kanak itu memperolehi bahasa drp ibu bapa & ahli keluarga lain melalui proses peniruan yang berulang-ulang sejak dia mula belajar menyebut bunyi-bunyi, perkataan & seterusnya membentuk ayat-ayat.
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Bahasa adalah suatu tingkah laku manusia yang sama dengan tingkah laku yang lain boleh dikuasai melalui latihan dan pengulangan (rangsangan dan gerak balas) Bahasa sebagai alat komunikasi aspek lisan diberi penekanan Pengukuhan dapat ditimbulkan melalui ganjaran

2. Nativist View
Children are prewired for language and that language is a process of normal maturation. Chomsky (1965) explains childrens ability to produce and understand novel sentences as an innate capacity. Children do not just repeat expressions they have learned, but they also test the rules they have formulated about their language. Children refine and generate a wide range of expressions from the particular sentences or expressions their hear.
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Lenneberg (1967) maintains language development is biologically determined and that its onset is regular and consistent with all children in all cultures. McNeill (1966) believes children instinctively understand there are basic structures or kernel sentences from which all other sentence types are generated. Through early hypothesizing and trial and error, children formulate the rules for transforming the basic structures into all sentence type.

Kanak-kanak normal mula bercakap pada peringkat umur yang sama Penguasaan bahasa kanak-kanak berkembang mengikut jadual biologis (bukan rangsangan dan gerak balas) Kanak-kanak berupaya membuat rumusan/peraturan bahasa sendiri tanpa diajar (seiring perkembangan otak & berpanjangan)
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Kebolehan memaham diperolehi dahulu sebelum kebolehan bertutur Kanak-kanak menyebut yang umum dahulu kemudian yang khusus

3. Constructivist View
Stress the sosial and cultural context of language development. Acknowledge that certain function of language are genetically determined, but maturational changes occur as children learn how to use language appropriately within their culture.

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Children selects and transforms information from past and current knowledge into new constructs and decisions New information is made available by adults/educators through dialogue to match the current knowledge of the child, to encourage discovery and to enable the learner to build upon the previous achievement

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Theories of Child Language Acquisition

1. Imitation Theory 2. Reinforcement Theory 3. Innateness Theory

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1. Imitation Theory
Children learn by imitating adult speech. Young children do not repeat language exactly the same way they hear it Often the child is incapable of precisely imitating adult speech They may imitate words, but are unable to produce entire sentences beyond their own grammatical ability.
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Granted as children get older they begin to mimic what they hear in conversations or on television, but generally this does not occur until they have learned the general rules of language and are consciously trying to learn more, between the ages of 2 and 4.

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2. Reinforcement Theory
Empiricism holds that all knowledge comes from experience. The reinforcement theory suggests that children learn to speak properly by being corrected & taught by the caregivers; that they are positively reinforce for correctness & negatively reinforce for errors.

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However, most adults only correct the most obvious mistakes, and often not until the child is older. In fact, adults do not always use proper gammar either, yet the child learns the rules anyway. Conversely, no matter how hard the caregiver tries, children only learn rules in specific stages, and wont learn new ones until they are ready
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3. Innateness Theory
Nativism this theory puts forward that humans have a genetic predisposition to learn language. While imitation and reinforcement are certainly factor in speech-learning, some innate ability must exist. All a normal child needs to learn language is exposure to it in a natural environment during the critical-age period.
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