Chapter 9 to 12
Transport Phenomena
by
Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot
CONTENTS OF HEAT TRANSFER
1. Heat conduction: Fourier law
2. Thermal conductivity of homogeneous media and
heterogeneous media
3. Steady state heat conduction in slab, cylinder and sphere
(with special emphasis on temperature distribution in
Nuclear Reactor Fuel Elements)
4. Transient heat conduction in semiinfinite objects
5. Transient heat conduction in finite objects with symmetry
conditions and asymmetry conditions
6. Transient heat conduction of objects in finite environment
7. Forced convection & heat conduction (with special
emphasis on Nuclear Reactor Heat Transfer)
8. Free convection
9. Equations of change
10. Heat conduction with phase change (if time permitted)
MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER
Three modes of heat transfer
Conduction Convection Radiation
Forced Natural
Heat is transferred
due to temperature
gradient.
Heat is transferred
by the motion of the
fluid.
If the fluid is forced,
forced convection.
If the motion of the fluid is
induced by the temperature,
natural convection
Only occur at
high temperature
HEAT CONDUCTION
Points to Remember
1. Transfer occurs due to the pure random motion of the
molecules at molecular level only
2. Simplest among the three modes of heat transfer.
3. It occurs in all three phases of matter (gas, liquid and
solid).
4. In solids, it is the only mechanism of heat transfer.
5. The driving force for the heat conduction is the
temperature gradient, that is whenever a gradient in
temperature exists there exists a conductive heat flow.
The heat flow is measured as the amount of
energy transferred through any given plane
per unit area per unit time. It is called heat flux.
Note:
HEAT CONDUCTION, contd. 2
From our experience we know the following facts
Direction of heat transfer
T
o
T
1
Cross sectional area
Az, thickness
HEAT CONDUCTION, contd. 3
Experience shows that Conductive heat flux
1 o
T T
q k
z
 
=

A
\ .
heat flux: energy/area/time
Property of material through
which the heat is conducted:
Thermal conductivity
Temperature gradient
Point wise:
Negative sign:
Heat is moving in the direction of
negative temperature gradient
Fouriers law
dT
q k
dz
 
=

\ .
The fundamental equation
in heat conduction
z
q
Plane A
HEAT CONDUCTION, contd. 4
dT
dz
Thermal conductivity
at the plane A, k
Heat flux as a vector
Temperature is a scalar, while
heat flux is a vector
HEAT CONDUCTION, contd. 4
Components of the Heat Flux Vector
z z
dT
q k
dz
 
=

\ .
y y
dT
q k
dy
 
=

\ .
x x
dT
q k
dx
 
=

\ .
For isotropic materials,
k
x
=k
y
=k
z
=k
the heat flux vector will become:
q k T = V
Where
x y z
q i + q j + q k q =
and
i + j + k
x y z
c c c
V =
c c c
Grad operator
MOMENTUM vs HEAT ?
y y
dT
q k
dy
 
=

\ .
x
v
yx
d
dy
t
 
=

\ .
Heat / momentum
flux
Driving Force
Property of Material
REMEMBER
There are three components of the HEAT FLUX VECTOR,
while there are nine components of the stress tensor /
MOMENTUM FLUX VECTOR.
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
In general, k
solid
> k
liquid
> k
gas
Property of material through which the heat is conducted
Units: W/m/K
Materials Thermal conductivity
Hydrogen @ 100K 0.067
Water @ 293K 0.600
Liquid sodium @373K 83.70
Aluminum 206.0
Insulating materials have low k
Materials Thermal conductivity
Glass @ 298K 1.00
Brick @ 293K 0.6 1.00
Glass wool @298K 0.07
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, contd. 2
Temperature dependence:
Gas
Liquid
Solid
Temperature
k
Gas: k increases with temperature
Liquid: no general rule; e.g. k of alcohols, benzene, toluene
decrease with T, while k of glycerin, ethylene glycol increase with T
Solid: also no general rule; e.g. k of polyethylene, polypropylene,
PTFE decrease with T, while those of insulation materials
increase with T
Fairly independent of pressure
Pressure dependence:
PROCEDURE OF TRANSPORT PHENOMENA ANALYSIS
1. Draw a physical diagram as carefully as possible.
2. Identify all possible energy transport mechanisms
3. Set a frame of coordinates and draw the direction of all
transport processes identified in step 2.
4. Draw a shell in such a way that its surfaces are
perpendicular to the transport direction.
5. Carry out the energy shell balance as below:
This should give a first order ODE in terms of heat flux
SHELL BALANCE BY FIRST PRINCIPLES
Rate of Rate of Rate of Production Accumulation
Energy In Energy Out of Energy of Energy
       
+ =
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
Shell Balance By First Principles, contd. 2
Procedure Of Transport Phenomena Analysis, contd
6. Apply the Fourier law: This should give a second order
ODE in terms of temperature.
7. Impose physical constraints on the boundary of the
physical system.
8. This gives rise to BCs.
Note that the number of boundary conditions must match
the order of the differential equation.
9. Solve the equation for the temperature distribution.
10. Obtain the mean temperature, heat flux.
Energy production:
1. Chemical reaction
2. Electrical heat
3. Viscous dissipation (degradation of mechanical energy)
4. Nuclear Reactions
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
1. Temperature is specified. This is called boundary condition
of the first kind (Dirichlet BC)
2. At the bounding surface, the heat flux equals to the flux
supplied. Boundary condition of the second kind (Neumann
BC)
3. At the bounding surface, the heat flux entering the domain
equals the heat flux across the thin film surrounding the
object. BC of the third kind (Robin BC).
Concept of heat transfer coefficient
6. At the interface between the two domains, the temperatures
and the heat fluxes of those domains are continuous. BC of
the fourth kind.
Steady state heat Conduction in slab
energy in energy out
constant
cross section
area, A
thin shell
z z+Az
Steps 1 to 4:
Steps 5 and 6: Energy balance equation
0 0
z z z
Aq Aq
+A
+ =
rate of energy in;
units: Joule/sec
rate of energy out;
units: Joule/sec
no heat
production
Steady state
Steady state heat Conduction in slab, contd. 2
First order ODE with respect to heat flux
dT
q k
dz
 
=

\ .
Fouriers law
0
dq
dz
=
Secondorder ODE with respect to T
0
d dT
k
dz dz
 
=

\ .
k is constant
k is temperature
dependent
2
2
0
d T
k
dz
= ( )
0
d dT
k T
dz dz
(
=
(
Steady state heat Conduction in slab, contd. 3
Step 7: Physical constraint on the boundary
Boundary conditions of the first kind.
Step 8: Temperature distribution
Temperature distribution is
linear (only valid for constant k
and slab geometry).
( )
0
o
L
T z T
z
T T L
o L
T T
q k
L
 
=

\ .
Linear temperature
distribution
Heat flux proportional
to temperature
difference
Steady state heat Conduction in slab, contd. 5
Would the heat flux be proportional to temperature difference
and temperature distribution linear if k=k(T)
Look at the case when k takes the following functional form:
( )
1
o o
k k T T o = + (
Step 6
 
=

\ .
which is an
interesting equation
Heat conduction in slab: Gas film resistance
What has been done so far in steps 1 to 6 is still valid, that is the
heat balance equation is:
Physical Definition of the Problem
Heat Balance Equation
Lets study the constant k first, and then
deal with temperature dependent k.
Heat conduction in slab: Gas film resistance, 2
Step 7: Physical constraints
With the existence of the gas film, we talk of BC of the third kind.
 
0
0; (0)
o o
z
dT
z h T T k
dz
=
= =
 
; ( )
L L
z L
dT
z L h T L T k
dz
=
= =
Local Heat Transfer Coefficients = f(Re, Pr, Gr)
Step 8: Temperature distribution
Note: T(0) and T(L) are yet
known, but we proceed anyway.
( ) (0)
( ) (0)
T z T z
T L T L
 
=

\ .
Heat conduction in slab: Gas film resistance, 3
For steady state operation
Rearrange the above equation as:
Final heat flux equation
gas film slab
q q =
 
 
 
(0) ( )
(0) ( )
o o L L
T T L
q h T T k h T L T
L
= = =
     
(0) (0) ( ) ( )
1 1
o L
L o
T T T T L T L T
q
L
k
h h
= = =
     

 
\ .
\ . \ .
 
1 1
o L
o L
T T
q
L
h k h
=
   
 
+ +
  
\ .
\ . \ .
written in terms of
known parameters and
operating conditions.
Heat conduction in slab: Gas film resistance, 4
write the heat flux equation as:
( )
1 1
0
1
o L
L
T T k
q
L
Bi Bi
=
+ +
Where Bi
0
and Bi
L
are dimensionless and are defined as:
0
0
;
L
L
h L h L
Bi Bi
k k
= =
which are called
the Biot numbers
Physical significance of Biot number
heat transfer through the film
heat transfer through the solid
Bi =
1. Bi >>1: Heat transfer through the object is limiting.
2. Bi << 1: Heat transfer through the fluid film is limiting.
Heat conduction in slab: Gas film resistance, 5
Avoid the confusion Bi and Nu
Their definitions:
(heat transfer coeff. through the film) (length)
thermal conductivity of solid
Bi
=
(heat transfer coeff through the film) (length)
thermal conductivity of fluid
Bi
=
Nu is seen in many correlations of heat transfer coefficients;
hence it involves only film properties.
Bi is seen in the analysis of heat transfer to or from an object.
Heat conduction in slab: Gas film resistance, 6
How about T(0) and T(L)?
Recall the following equations:
     
(0) (0) ( ) ( )
1 1
o L
L o
T T T T L T L T
q
L
k
h h
= = =
     

 
\ .
\ . \ .
 
1 1
o L
o L
T T
q
L
h k h
=
   
 
+ +
  
\ .
\ . \ .
You get
( )
( )
1
(0)
1 1
o
o o L
o L
h
T T T T
L
h k h
 

\ .
=
   
+ +
 
\ . \ .
( )
( )
1
( )
1 1
L
L o L
o L
h
T L T T T
L
h k h
 

\ .
= +
   
+ +
 
\ . \ .
Heat conduction in slab: Gas film & k(T)
Steps 1 to 6:
The heat balance equation is:
( )
0
1 0
o
d dT d dT
k k T T
dz dz dz dz
o
 
= + = (
`

\ . )
Step 7: Boundary conditions
 
0
0; (0)
o o
z
dT
z h T T k
dz
=
= =
 
; ( )
L L
z L
dT
z L h T L T k
dz
=
= =
with T(0) being the solid object temperature at z=0, and T(L) being
that at z=L.
Step 8 and 9: Temperature distribution & heat flux
(0) ( )
avg
T T L
q k
L
 
=

\ .
( )
1
2
avg o o L
k k T T
o
(
=
(
Heat conduction in slab: Gas film & k(T), 2
This flux must be the same as fluxes through the film at both
sides of the solid object:
 
 
 
(0) ( )
(0) ( )
o o avg L L
T T L
q h T T k h T L T
L
= = =
Thus, we get
 
1 1
o L
o avg L
T T
q
L
h k h
=
 
   
+ +

 

\ . \ .
\ .
( )
1
(0)
1 1
o
o o L
o avg L
h
T T T T
L
h k h
 

\ .
=
 
   
+ +
 

\ . \ .
\ .
( )
1
( )
1 1
L
L o L
o avg L
h
T L T T T
L
h k h
 

\ .
= +
 
   
+ +
 

\ . \ .
\ .
Two nonlinear algebraic
equations in terms of T(0)
and T(L) as k
avg
is a
function of T(0) and T(L).
So far
Heat conduction
1. Thermal conductivity, k
2. First principles of solving heat conduction
problems
3. Heat conduction in slab object:
4. Heat conduction with gas film in slab object
1. BC of the first kind
2. BC of the third kind
5. Constant thermal conductivity
6. Tdependent thermal conductivity
Now let us turn to
1. composite objects
2. objects of different geometries than slab,
3. Cylinder
4. sphere
Composite slab objects
Let deal with constant k, and N layers.
Composite slab objects
Utilizing results obtained earlier for a single slab object,
one can write:
 
     
 
1 2 2 3 1
1 1 2 1 1 2
1 2
..
N N
o o N N N N
N
T T T T T T
q h T T k k k h T T
L L L
+
+ + +
= = = = = =
In the ratio form;
         
1 1 2 2 3 1 1 2
1 2
1 2 1
...
1 1
o N N N N
N
o N N
T T T T T T T T T T
q
L L L
k k h k h
+ + +
+
= = = = = +
         
    
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ .
2
1
1
1 1
o N
N
j
j
o j N
T T
q
L
h k h
+
=
+
(
=
 
   
+ +

 

\ . \ .
\ .
=
(
(
always associated with
cylindrical geometry
Heat conduction in cylinder, contd. 4
Step 9: Heat flux
2
2
1 2
1
2
ln
( )
ln
r
R
T r T
T T
R
R
(
(
=
(
(
( )
dT
q r k
dr
 
=

\ .
( )
1 2
2
1
( )
ln
k T T
q r
R
r
R
=
(
(
Unlike the slab case, this heat flux is not
a constant, but rather decreases as the
heat moves away from the center.
This is not entirely unexpected.
r heat flux area
Heat flow
=
flux area
small large small the same
large small large the same
Heat conduction in cylinder, contd. 5
Although the heat flux changes with distance r, the heat flow
(energy/time) must be a constant, a requirement of steady state.
Total rate of heat flow out of the cylinder:
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
1 2 1 2
2
2 2
2
1 1
2 ( ) 2 2
ln ln
r R
r R
k T T T T
Q rL kq r R L Lk
R R
R
R R
t t t
=
=
= = =
( (
( (
constant as expected
Compare this heat flow with that for the slab geometry.
Slab
( )
1 2
x L
A
Q k T T
L
=
=
Cylinder
( )
( )
2
1 2
2
1
2
ln
r R
L
Q T T k
R
R
t
=
=
(
(
Irrespective of the geometry, the
heat flow is proportional to
1. thermal conductivity
2. temperature difference
Only difference is geometrical
factor
Heat conduction in cylinder, contd. 6
When the annulus is very thin, that is no curvature
R
2
 R
1
<< R
1
Would you expect the solution obtained for the cylindrical
geometry to reduce to that of slab.
Now lets consider the case of k=k(T)
( ) ( )
1 such that 1
o o o L
k k T T T T o o = + < (
Doing all the necessary mathematics and using same BCs
Temperature distribution
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
1 1
1
2
2
2 1 2 1
1
ln
2
ln
2
r
T r T T r T
R
R
T T T T
R
o
o
 

+
\ .
=
 
+

\ .
Heat conduction in cylinder, contd. 7
Step 9: Heat flux
( ) ( )
2
1
1 2 1 2
2
1
2
ln
k
q T T T T
R
r
R
o (
 
=

(
 
\ .

\ .
Heat flow
( ) ( )
2
1
1 2 1 2
2
1
2
2
ln
Lk
q T T T T
R
R
t o (
 
=

(
 
\ .

\ .
which is independent of r.
Heat conduction in composite cylinders walls
Exactly the same analysis as that of composite wall slabs
Heat flow
( )
( ) ( )
2 1 3 2
1 2
2
ln ln
....
in out
L T T
q
R R R R
k k
t
=
+ +
Similarly the analysis of composite cylindrical walls with fluids
at the two surfaces, leads to
( )
( )
1 2
1
2
1 1
2
ln
1 1
f f
n
i i
i
inner i n outer
L T T
q
R R
R h k R h
t
=
+ +
= =
Transient Heat Conduction, 3
1. The larger is this parameter, the faster is the heat transport.
2. We shall see that this parameter will evolve naturally during
the analysis.
Now, coming back to our example.
Oil System Air System
848 1.1
C
p
2130 928
k 0.14 0.03
o 7.7510
8
m
2
/s 2.9410
5
m
2
/s
Heat conduction in a Semiinfinite slab object
Case 1
Constant temperature at x=0 surface
Heat balance over the shell:
0 ( )
p
x x x
T
Aq Aq A x C
t
+A
c
+ = A
c
rate of energy in;
units: Joule/sec
rate of energy out;
units: Joule/sec
no heat
production
accumulation
of energy
divide by Ax and take the limit when x 0
p
q T
C
x t
c c
=
c c
OR
2
2
T T
x t
o
c c
=
c c
thermal
diffusivity
Heat conduction in a Semiinfinite slab object, 2
Initial and boundary conditions
At t= 0: T = T
0
At x= 0: T = T
s
At x : T = T
0
far away from the surface, the temperature
is not yet disturbed by the change in
surface temperature
This condition is maintained for t > 0
+
condition of the object before the surface
temperature is changed
Temperature distribution
( , )
4
s
o s
T x t T x
erf
T T
t o
 
=

\ .
Heat conduction in a Semiinfinite slab object, 3
The heat penetration front can
be defined as the front at which
the temperature is such that:
( , )
0.995
4
s
o s
T t T
erf
T T
t
o o
o
 
= =

\ .
From the table
of error function,
erf(2)=0.995;
4 4
p
k
t t
C
o o
= =
The penetration front is proportional to
1 the square root of time,
2. the square root of k
3. the inverse of the square root of C
p
Heat conduction in a Semiinfinite slab object, 4
Front travels fast
1. high conductivity
2. low volumetric heat
capacity
Front travels slow
1. Low conductivity
2. high volumetric heat
capacity
The square root dependence of the heat front with respect to time is
the characteristics of conduction (diffusion) type problems.
Heat flux: Obtained from the Fourier law
( )
( )
2
, exp
4
s o
k T T
x
q x t
t t to o
 
=

\ .
What we can observe from this are:
1. Heat flux decays rapidly with x for a given time
2. Heat flux increases to a maximum and then decays w.r.t time.
Heat conduction in a Semiinfinite slab object, 5
Of interest to engineers is the heat flux entering the object at
x=0:
( )
( )
0,
s o
k T T
q t
t to
=
This heat flux is infinite at t=0!
Is this acceptable physically?
Answer:
The infinite flux at t=0 is due to the sudden exposure of the surface to
a new temperature, that is infinite temperature gradient at t=0.
If we are interested in the amount of heat has entered the object up
to time t, we find:
( )
( ) ( )
1
0
2 2
( ) 0,
s o s o
p
Ak T T Ak T T
Q t A q t dt t k C t
to t
= = =
}
The amount of heat transfer is proportional to the square root of
1. The thermal conductivity
2. The volumetric heat capacity
A typical variation in heat flux w.r.t time
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 97
Heat conduction in a Semiinfinite slab object, 6
If there is a film heat transfer resistance at x=0, the solution for the
temperature distribution is
2
2
( , )
1 exp
4 4
s
o s
T x t T x x h t hx h t
erf erf
T T k k k
t t
o o
o o
(
 
   
= + + +
( 



\ .
\ . (
\ .
When heat transfer coefficient h is infinite (that is no film resistance),
the second term in the RHS is zero, as erf()=1.
Case 2: Constant heat flux at x=0
The heat balance equation is still the same as before as the equation
describes point wise heat balance within the domain (i.e. object) and
it is not affected by the way how we impose conditions on the system.
How we impose the system is through the boundary condition.
The boundary condition for this case is:
0:
s
T
x k q
x
c
= =
c
Heat conduction in a Semiinfinite slab object, 7
The solution for the heat flux is:
( )
, 1
4
s
x
q x t q erf
t o
(
 
=
( 
\ .
The temperature distribution is:
2
4
( , ) exp 1
4
4
s s
o
q q x t x x
T x t T erf
k t k
t
o
t o
o
(  
 
= +
 ( 
\ .
\ .
The quantity of interest is the rise in temperature at the x=0 surface:
4
(0, )
s
o
q t
T t T
k
o
t
= +
Due to the constant supply of heat flux, the x=0 temperature
increases with time and follows the square root dependence.
THE ENERGY EQUATION
The equation of energy, which
describes energy transport in
homogeneous fluid or solid.
Net Rate of internal and Net Rate of internal and
Net Rate of accumulation
kinetic Energy addition kinetic Energy additiont
of internal and kinetic =
by Bulk motion b
Energy
(convection)
 
 



+




\ .
\ .
y molecular motion
(conduction)
Rate of work done on Rate of work done on
system surfaces by system's volume by
molecular motion (stresses) external forces (gravity)
 




\ .
   
 
+ +
 
 
\ . \ .
An energy balance without any
source term can be written as
THE ENERGY EQUATION, 2
Some comments about the terms used in Energy Equation
1. Kinetic energy: is energy associated with the fluid
bulk/observable motion, i.e. v
2
on a unit volume basis.
2. Internal energy: is energy associated with the random
translational and internal motions of the molecules plus the
energy of interaction between the molecules.
3. Potential energy: does not appear in Eq. It is taken into
account as the work done on the system by gravity.
4. The Source Terms: Not included in the energy equation
except the viscous dissipation term which appears
automatically. Rest can be added as and when needed
Let us do this termbyterm.
THE ENERGY EQUATION, 3
Term 1: Accummulation
( )
2
1
2
x y z U V
t
c
 
A A A +

c
\ .
Volume of element
Internal Energy per unit mass
K.E per unit volume
Term 2: Net Energy Addition by Convection
( )
2 2
1 1
v v
2 2
x x
x x x
y z U V U V
+A
(
   
A A + + +
(
 
\ . \ .
( )
2 2
1 1
v v
2 2
y y
y y y
x z U V U V
+A
(
   
A A + + +
(
 
\ . \ .
(
( )
2 2
1 1
v v
2 2
z z
z z z
x y U V U V
+A
(
   
A A + +
(
 
\ . \ .
THE ENERGY EQUATION, 4
Term 3: Net Energy Addition by Conduction
( ) ( ) ( )
x x y y z z
x x x z z z
y y y
y z q q x z q q x y q q
+A +A
+A
(
( ( A A + A A + A A
q
x
, q
y
, q
z
are components of the heat flux vector q
Term 4: Work done on the system surfaces by fluid.
1. Work done by pressure forces
2. Work done by viscous forces
The work done by the pressure forces:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
v v
v v
v v
x x
x x x
y y
y y y
z z
z z z
y z p p
x z p p
x y p p
+A
+A
+A
(
A A +
(
A A +
(
(
A A
THE ENERGY EQUATION, 5
The work by the viscous forces
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
v v v v v v
v v v v v v
v v v v v v
xx x xy y xz z xx x xy y xz z
x x x
yx x yy y yz z yx x yy y yz z
y y y
zx x zy y zz z zx x zy y zz z
z z z
y z
x z
x y
t t t t t t
t t t t t t
t t t t t t
+A
+A
+A
(
A A + + + + +
(
A A + + + + +
(
(
A A + + + +
The rate of work done against the three components of the
volume forces (gravity)
Term 4: Work done on the systems volume by external forces
( )( )
v v v
x x y y z z
x y z g g g A A A + +
Putting all those terms into the shell energy balance equation,
then dividing by xyz, we get the following energy balance
equation per unit volume:
THE ENERGY EQUATION, 6
2
1
2
U V
t
c
 
+ =

c
\ .
2
2
2
1
v
2
1
v
2
1
v
2
x
y
z
U V
x
U V
y
U V
z
c (
 
+ +
 (
c
\ .
c (  
+ +
`
 (
c
\ .
c (
 
+
 (
c
\ .
)
y
x z
q
q q
x y z
c
  c c
+ +

c c c
\ .
( ) ( ) ( )
v v v
x y z
p p p
x y z
( c c c
+ +
(
c c c
( )
( )
( )
v v v
v v v
v v v
xx x xy y xz z
yx x yy y yz z
zx x zy y zz z
x
y
z
t t t
t t t
t t t
( c
+ + +
(
c
(
c
(
+ + +
(
c
(
c
(
+ +
(
c
( )
v v v
x x y y z z
g g g + + +
Convection
Conduction
Pressure Work
Viscous Work
Gravity Work
THE ENERGY EQUATION, 7
Such a massive energy equation can be written in a compact
vectortensor:
 
( )
2
2
1
U+
2
1
V U+
2
V
V
V
V
t
V
q
p
g
c
 
=

c
\ .
(
 
V

(
\ .
(
V
V
V (
(
+
rate of gain of energy per unit volume
rate of energy input per unit volume
by convection
rate of energy input per unit volume
by conduction
rate of work done on fluid per unit
volume by pressure forces
rate of work done on fluid per unit
volume by viscous forces
rate of work done on fluid per unit
volume by gravitational forces
SPECIAL FORMS OF ENERGY EQUATION
Using Equation of continuity one can transform the energy
equation in Substantial Derivative form
 
( )
2
1
V V
V U+
2
D
g
q p V
Dt
t
 
(
( V (
V V = +

\ .
 
V D
p g
Dt
t = V V +
Take scalar product with V
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
1
:
2
D
V p V pV V V V g
Dt
t t
 
= V V V + V + (
`

\ .
)
This is called the Mechanical Energy form of Equation of Motion
Subtract the Mechanical Energy equation from the Energy Equation
SPECIAL FORMS OF ENERGY EQUATION, 2
( )  
( )
: V
V U
D
q p
Dt
t
V
(
V V =
rate of gain of
internal energy per
unit volume
rate of energy input
per unit volume by
conduction
Reversible rate of internal
energy increase per unit
volume by volume change
Irreversible rate of internal
energy increase per unit volume
by viscous dissipation
Internal Energy is not a convenient energy
to be measured, needs to be replaced by
more convenient terms
SPECIAL FORMS OF ENERGY EQUATION, 3
1. Equations written in terms of internal energy (often difficult to
measure in an experiment) are not directly too useful.
2. One prefers equations written in terms of temperature and heat
capacities (usually easier to measure in an experiment.
From thermodynamics:
v
T v v
U U p
dU dv dT p T dv C dT
v T T
(
c c c
     
= + = + +
   (
c c c
\ . \ . \ .
Thus thermal energy equation becomes
 
( )
: V
V
v
v
DT p
q C T
Dt T
t
c
 
V
(
V V =

c
\ .
Express q in terms of temperature gradient and stress tensors in
terms of velocity gradient, the above equation will be in terms of
temperature & velocity
SPECIAL FORMS OF ENERGY EQUATION, 4
For a Newtonian fluid with constant k:
( )
 
2
V
v v
v
DT p
C k T T
Dt T
c
 
V = V + u

c
\ .
2 2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
3
y y y
x x z z
v
y
x x z z
V V V
V V V V
x y z x y y z
V
V V V V
x x x y z
(
c c c
      c c c c
   
u = + + + + + + + (
    
c c c c c c c
\ . \ .
(
\ . \ . \ .
c
  c c c c
 
+ + +
 
c c c c c
\ .
\ .
For ideal gases, since
p p
T T
c
 
=

c
\ .
Thermal Equation
For ideal gases
( )
 
2
V
v v
DT
C k T p
Dt
V = V + u
SPECIAL FORMS OF ENERGY EQUATION, 5
For solid, Liquid and gases if pressure is constant and viscous
dissipation is neglected
Thermal Equation for such cases is:
( )
2
p
DT
C k T
Dt
= V
In particular for solids the Thermal Equation is:
( )
2
p
T
C k T
t
c
= V
c
SOURCE TERMS (NUCLEAR)
1. Nuclear Source term in particular and other source terms in
general are evaluated on volumetric basis
2. Heat generated per unit volume per unit time.
3. If we know the following then this term can be calculated
1. Number of nuclear reactions/fissions occurring per unit
volume per unit time
2. Energy released in each fission reaction
4. To calculate the volumetric rate of fission reactions we need
1. Number of atoms available for fission
2. The number of atoms among these participating in fission
3. Number of neutrons available for these fission reactions
LETS DISCUSS EACH TERM AND QUANTIFY
SOURCE TERMS (NUCLEAR), 2
Number of Atoms per unit volume of fuel available N
ff
1. Fuel available is generally in the form of a compound
2. If available in pure metallic/compound form then
.
ff
ff
N Av i
Mol wt of fuel
=
Where,
Av = Avogadros Number
ff
= density of fissionable fuel
i = number of fissionable atoms in one molecule of fuel
3. If the fuel is not pure it has some enrichment ratio r
ff f fm
r r f = =
Where,
r =enrichment or mass ratio of fissionable fuel to total fuel
f = mass fraction of fuel in fuel material and can be calculated as
SOURCE TERMS (NUCLEAR), 3
2
(1 )
(1 )( ) ( ) (1 )
(1 )
(1 )( ) ( ) (1 )
ff nf
ff nf nf ff
ff nf O
ff nf nf ff
r r
M M
r r M M r M M r
f
r r
M M M
r r M M r M M r
+
+ +
=
+ +
+ +
Where,
M
nf
= Molecular Mass of nonfissionable fuel material such as U
238
M
O2
= Molecular Mass of non fuel elements that make up the the
balance of the fuel material such as O
2
in UO
2
If M
nf
~M
ff
then above equation simplifies to
2
(1 )
(1 )
ff nf
ff nf O
rM r M
f
rM r M M
+
=
+ +
Thus finally the number density of fissionable atoms is:
ff fm
ff
Av
N r f i
M
=
SOURCE TERMS (NUCLEAR), 4
Number of neutrons available for these fission reactions
1. Depend on the neutron flux  available in the reactor
2. Comes from the Physics of the reactor and can be calculated
3. Flux Distribution is
1. Sinusoidal in the axial direction
2. Bessel function of radius in the radial direction
3. Constant according to the above functions for homogeneous
core
4. Effected by the different nonfissile materials present in the
core, such as control rods, cladding and moderator etc for
heterogeneous cores
5. Depends on the temperature of the fuel and moderator
6. The accuracy of flux distribution determination is extremely
important from thermal hydraulics point of view
7. For our purpose we will assume that the flux distribution is
known to us for the time being
SOURCE TERMS (NUCLEAR), 5
Energy released in each fission reaction
1. 200 Mev is liberated
2. 90% of this can be
recovered
3. Rest is lost
4. If G
f
is the energy released
in one fission reaction then
energy available for Heat
transfer is 0.9G
f
SOURCE TERMS (NUCLEAR), 6
How many fission reactions will take place for a known neutron
flux  and Number density N
ff
1. This depends on the probability of the reaction to occur
1. The microscopic neutron crossection o
f
is needed
2. This again comes from the Physics of nuclear materials
THUS THE FINAL SOURCE TERM RELATION BECOMES
f ff f
q G N o 
'''
=
Volumetric source strength
Mev/cm
3
sec
by 1.5477E8 to convert to
BTU/hr ft
3
Neutron flux,
No/cm
2
sec
Effective Neutron
fission microscopic
crossection, cm
2
Energy released
MeV
Number density, No/cm
3
Problem1
An electric wire with radius r
o
of 0.50 mm is made of copper [electrical conductivity =
5.1 x 107 ohm
1
m
1
and thermal conductivity = 380 W/(m K)]. It is insulated (see
figure) to an outer radius r
1
of 1.50 mm with plastic [thermal conductivity = 0.350
W/(m K)].
The ambient air is at 38.0
o
C and the heat transfer coefficient from the outer insulated
surface to the surrounding air is 8.500 W/(m
2
K). Determine the maximum current in
amperes that can flow at steadystate in the wire without any portion of the insulation
getting heated above its maximum allowable temperature of 93.0
o
C.
Problem2
A solid is formed from the conical section of a sphere of radius R as shown in the
figure. The spherical surface at r = R is insulated, while the two conical surfaces at q
= q
1
and q = q
2
are held at temperatures T
1
and T
2
, respectively. The thermal
conductivity k of the solid material may be assumed constant.
a) Establish an expression for the temperature T (q) in the
solid object at steady state.
b) Find the total rate of heat flow across each of the conical
surfaces.
Problem3
A heated sphere of diameter D is placed in a large amount of stagnant fluid.
Consider the heat conduction in the fluid surrounding the sphere in the absence of
convection. The thermal conductivity k of the fluid may be considered constant.
The temperature at the sphere surface is T
R
and the temperature far away from
the sphere is T
a
.
1. Establish an expression for the temperature T in the surrounding fluid as a
function of r, the distance from the center of the sphere.
2. Also develop an expression for the Nusselt number
Problem4
An oil (of viscosity m and thermal conductivity k) acts as a lubricant between two
coaxial cylinders. The inner cylinder is stationary and the outer cylinder of radius R
rotates at an angular velocity W. The clearance between the cylinders is b, which is
small compared to the radii of the cylinders; so, curvature effects can be neglected
and the cylindrical system can be approximated by a plane narrow slit (to be solved
in Cartesian coordinates) as shown in the figure. Derive an expression for the
maximum temperature in the lubricant if both cylinders are at temperature T
0
.
Neglect the temperature dependence of m and k, but explicitly take into account the
heat generated by viscous dissipation.
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