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By Kamil Shahzad Assistant Professor Balochistan Institute of Technology
– The process of transmitting information from one person to another
• Effective Communication
– The process of sending a message in such a way that the message received is as closed in meaning as possible to the message intended.
Sender 2 Encoding Noise 3 Transmission Through channels Receiver 4 Decoding
7 Transmission Through channels Noise
• Oral Communication
– Face-to-face conversation, group discussions, telephone calls, and other circumstances in which the spoken word is used to transit meaning.
• Written Communication
– Memos, letters, reports, notes, and other circumstances in which the written word is used to transmit meaning.
Form Advantages Oral Disadvantages 1. Promotes feedback 1. May suffer form and interchange inaccuracies 2. Is easy to use 2. Leaves no permanent record 3. Seldom time for thoughtful response 1. Tends to be more 1. Inhabits feedback and accurate interchange 2. Provides a record of 2. Is more difficult and the communication time consuming
• Vertical communication
– Communication flows up and down.
• Horizontal communication
– Communication that flows laterally within the organization; involving colleagues and peers at the same level of organization.
• How the communication is to be made • Important to select an appropriate medium for the message: • Need to consider the needs of the sender, the nature of the receiver and the aims of the communication • Inappropriate medium can be a barrier to effective communication
• Vast majority of problems in business are caused by ineffective communication in one form or another • Businesses essentially human focused organisations • Value of good communications therefore tremendous
• Who the communication is aimed at is an important factor: • The nature of the medium and the content may depend on who it is aimed at • Necessity of being sensitive to the receiver • Should communication be formal or informal? • E.g.
• E-mail communication:
– Does it need to adhere to normal rules of spelling, punctuation and grammar? – Is it appropriate to use text speak?
• Is this OK 4U or is txt 1 stp 2fr?
– Are there different rules for different situations? – How do you know what the receiver expects? – What damage can be caused by inappropriate e-mail messages?
• What is the communication designed to achieve? • This needs to be considered carefully to judge the best method of delivery and to judge the effectiveness of the feedback as to whether the message has been successful.
• Type of message may be an important factor in determining the medium, content, approach, etc. • Good news? • Bad news? • Information? • Instruction? • Each of the above may require a different approach and a different medium.
Role of Information & Communication Technology
Role of ICT
• ICT has brought many advantages but also has its limitations:
– It enables speedy communication – It can be cheap and save on costs (e.g. videoconferencing) – It can be expensive in hardware requirements – It can seem impersonal – It can be abused
• Anything that prevents successful communication from occurring • Complex and multi-layered • Can be technical or generated by the medium used, etc. but: • Main problem is human behaviour and psychology, e.g.
• A significant factor influencing successful communication • Emotions - anger, frustration, happiness, enthusiasm, need to be defensive, desire to be assertive, etc. • Body language – says far more about communication than we ever realise!