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The standard reference temperature is 20 C for industrial measurements and, consequently, for dimensions defined by the system. Due to the inevitable inaccuracy of manufacturing methods, a part cannot be made precisely to a given dimension, the difference between maximum and minimum limits of size is the tolerance. hen two parts are to be assembled, the relation resulting from the difference between their sizes before assembly is called a f t.

" #ow to decide tolerance$
% &unctional requirements of mating parts % Cost of production % 'vailable manufacturing process
" Choose as coarse tolerance as possible without compromising functional requirements " (roper balance between cost and quality of parts



)ax #ole size % *asic +ize , -pper Deviation )ax shaft size % *asic +ize , -pper Deviation )in #ole size % *asic +ize , .ower Deviation )in shaft size % *asic +ize , .ower Deviation


)aximum shaft dimension 1 )inimum hole dimension

&2! 3 condition of looseness or tightness between two mating parts being assembled together


)aximum #ole size 1 )inimum +haft size


/btained by overlapping of tolerance zones of shaft and hole 44 Does not guarantee neither clearance nor interference fit

To o!ta n d fferent t"pes of f ts# t s $eneral pract ce to %ar" tolerance &one of one of the mat n$ parts

#/.0 *'+0D +5+!0)3 +ize of hole is 6ept constant, shaft size is varied to get different fits.

+#'&! *'+0D +5+!0)3 +ize of shaft is 6ept constant, hole size is varied to get different fits.

' fit is indicated by the basic size common to both components, followed by symbol corresponding to each component, the hole being quoted first. 0.g. 78 #9:g;

!he selection of letter freezes one limit of hole : shaft @how much away from *asic size?

=epresentation of !olerance >? .etter +ymbol

*asic +ize

78 09:e;

/ne can have different possible combinationsA eg. 78#Bg;, 78#9rB, 7808p; 0.+. % upper deviation 0.2. % lower deviation # < lower deviation of hole is zero h < upper deviation of shaft is zero

=epresentation of !olerance 2? Cumber or Drade 2!0>, 2!0, 2!>,4.2!>B

!olerance Drade defines range of dimensions @dimensional variation? !here are manufacturing constraints on tolerance grade chosen

='CD0 2C ' D2E0C !/.0='CC0 D='D0

!he selection of !olerance grade number freezes the other limit of hole : shaft

=epresentation of !olerance

# < lower deviation of hole is zero

=epresentation of &it

!ogether @.etter F Drade? on both mating components decide quality of fit


2C!0=&0=0CC0 &2!
0.022 0.0>H

IH0.0H8 IH0.022

IH0.02> IH0.000

#; < !ol Drade ; mean 2>G variation @# means upper deviation zero? pB < !ol Drade B means >HG variation @p means upper deviation is 22 G?

Tolerance on Components



0stimate 6ind of fit





!he components of the toleranced dimension shall be indicated in the following order< a? the basic size, and b? the tolerance symbol. 2f, in addition to the symbols it is necessary to express the values of the deviations or the limits of size, the additional information shall be shown in brac6ets.

/erm ss !le de% at on

"2f a dimension needs to be limited in one direction only, this should be indicated by adding JminK or JmaxK to the dimension.

"!he upper deviation or the upper limit of size shall be written in the upper position and the lower deviation or the lower limit of size in the lower position, irrespective of whether a hole or a shaft is toleranced. "!he tolerance symbol for the hole shall be placed before that for the shaft or above it, the symbols being preceded by the basic size indicated once only.

Ind cat on of Tolerances on An$ular D mens ons

+!-&&2CD */L