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PETE 689 Underbalanced Drilling (UBD) Lesson 10

Flow Drilling Mudcap Drilling Snub Drilling Closed Systems Read: UDM Chapter 2.8-2.11 Pages 2.180-2.219
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Flow Drilling
Flow drilling refers to drilling operations in which the well is allowed to flow to surface while drilling. All UBD operations are really flow drilling operations, but the term is usually applied to drilling with a single phase mud, and no gas is injected except by the formation.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Flow Drilling
Clear drill brine density less than or equal to 1.02 g/cm3

Oil, Gas, and Brine

9.5 ppg Brine

Pressure higher in HEEL of well causing lost returns

Pressure lower in TOE of well causes influx
Pore Pressure =3030 psi at 6234 ft

Flowdrilling a naturally fractured horizontal well (courtesy of Signa Engineering Corporation)
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Drilling Fluid Selection
Density is determined by: • Maximum pressure ≤ to formation pressure. • Minimum pressure dictated by wellbore stability. Pressure limitations of diverter and BOP equipment.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Surface Equipment
MUD PITS

STACK
CHEMICAL INJECTION

GAS/FLUID SEPARATION SYSTEM

UNDERBALANCE DRILLING MANIFOLD

Schematic of surface equipment required for flowdrilling (courtesy of Signa Engineering Corporation)
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Surface Equipment 12 in. Gas boot (open on bottom) Water to rig Grade Gas Separator Choke Manifold Gas Separator ROP Annular Preventer Pipe Rams Blind Rams Pipe Rams Skimmer tanks Oil tank Oil to treatment off location Atmospheric surface system for flowdrilling (courtesy of Signa Engineering Corporation) Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering . Flare 4 in. Flare 6 in. Flare 4-6 in.

Surface Equipment RBOP Choke Line Typical flowdrilling BOP stack (courtesy of Signa Engineering Corporation) Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .Surface Equipment Rotating blowout preventer (RBOP).

Surface Equipment Kelly Packer Hydraulic Fluid RBOP sealing elements Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering Nitrile .

Surface Equipment Hydraulic Choke Manual Choke A typical flowdrilling choke manifold (courtesy of Signa Engineering Corporation) Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .

Sizing Flare Line Weymouth’s equation can be used to predict the pressure drop for a gas. in steadystate. flow along the pipe:… Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering . adiabatic.

73 Where: Q gas flow rate (scf/D) d inside diameter of the pipe (the gas flare line in this case) (inches) To standard temperature (520 oF) Po standard pressure (14.Sizing Flare Line Q = 433.P2 the inlet and outlet pressures (psia) Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .5 To Po d16/3(P21-P22) STLZa 2.7 psia) S gas gravity (air = 1) T pressure above the bit (psfa) L bottomhole pressure below the bit (psia) Za average compressibility factor (Weymouth used Za = 1) P1.

73 incorporates a friction factor. f = 0.032/d1/3 Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .Sizing Flare Line …Weymouth's Equation 2.

73) becomes: Q = 19.754 d16/3(P21-P22) TL 2.6. and substituting for standard temperature and pressure. Equation (2.74 Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .Sizing Flare Line Assuming a gas gravity of 0.

is: Q2TL 2. the inlet pressure.75 Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering . Q. L. and flow rate. from miles to feet. P1.Sizing Flare Line Converting length.06d16/3 P1 = + P22 2. from scf/D to MMscf/D.

h height from the top of the gas boot to the bottom of the U-tube (feet).Sizing Flare Line The pressure differential exerted by the U-tube head can be expressed as: P1 – P2 = 0.76 . Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering 2.433ρh Where: Ρ specific gravity of the fluid in the U-tube or separator.

Sizing Flare Line Equations (2.433ρ + P22 .75) and (2. and flare line diameter: Q2TL h= 2.76) can be combined to solve for the U-tube height.P2 2.06d16/3 0. in terms of the gas flow rate. temperature.77 Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering . outlet (atmospheric) pressure.

Oil transfer tank. Secondary oil separation pit. Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering . Drilling fluid pit.Surface Pits Primary oil separation pit. Skimmer system safety.

• Minimize drilling fluids losses. Maximum tolerable surfaces pressures should be established before drilling starts. • Minimize differential sticking problems.Operating Procedures Mechanical objectives flow drilling are: during • To control the well. Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .

It is not strictly an underbalanced drilling technique. Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .Mudcap Drilling Utilized with uncontrollable loss of circulation during flowdrilling operations. Higher pressures than can be safely handled with the rotating head or RBOP.

Mudcap Drilling Driller loads the annulus with a relatively high density high viscosity mud and closes the choke with surface pressure maintained. Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering . Drilling is then continued “blind” by pumping a clear non-damaging fluid down the drillstring through the bit and into the thief zone.

000 psi. Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering . • Sour oil and gas production. • Small diameter wellbores.Mudcap Drilling Applications: • Sustained surface pressures in excess of 2.

Mudcap Drilling Viscous Fluid Mudcap Mudcap Interface (Formation Fluid / Drillwater) Water replacement in formation fractures An example of mudcap drilling (courtesy of Signa Engineering Corporation) Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .

Mudcap Drilling GAS BUSTER RIG FLOOR To flare pit MUD PITS MUD PUMPS HCR Valve (Closed) CHOKE (closed) Chemical Injection DIVERTER Schematic of equipment required for mudcap drilling (courtesy of Signa Engineering Corporation) Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .

12. ft.8 9.800 Depth (TVD)/ 1.Determining Pore Pressure Pressure.400 9.600 9. psi 9.0 12.2 12.6 12.4 12.000.8 Pore Pressure Bore Hole Pressure PP Datum Determining the Reservoir Pressure Along the Wellbore Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .200 11.

density of the injection fluid. Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering . ft.052 (EMWpore pressure . psi. ppg.MWinjection fluid)TVD Where: PSPPstatic EMWpore pressure MWinjection fluid TVD static standpipe pressure. true vertical depth of the top of reservoir. equivalent mud weight of formation pore pressure.Static Standpipe Pressures PSPPstatic= 0. ppg.

000’ = 4.500’ TVD). Formation To Formation Bottom Example EMWpore pressure 15 ppg MWinjection fluid 8.156 psi 14.052*(15-8. Fractures exist at both the top and the bottom of the formation.34)*12. Injection fluid is fresh water with no additives.34)*12.Given: Reservoir described in Figure 3-1-2.000’ 4.129 psi Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .000’ TVD) and encounter the formation bottom at TD of 17.000’ MD (12.7 ppg 8. A lateral is planned to intersect the formation top at 12.000 ft PSPPstatic 0.052*(15-8.34 ppg TVD 12.500 ft 0. Find: Maximum static standpipe pressure when the bit is at the top and at the bottom of the formation.750’ MD (12.34 ppg 12.

frictional pressure drop of fluid flowing down drillpipe. static standpipe pressure. pressure drop across the measurement-while drilling tool. pressure drop across bit nozzles. frictional pressure drop of fluid flowing down drill collars. pressure loss to power motor. psi.. frictional pressure drop of fluid flowing through fractures.Dynamic Standpipe Pressures PSPINJECTION = PSPPstatic+ΔPDP+ΔP Drill collars+ΔPMWD+ΔP Motor+ΔP Bit+ΔP frac Where: PSPINJECTION PSPPstatic ΔPDP ΔP Drill collars ΔPMWD ΔP Motor ΔP Bit ΔP frac standpipe pressure while circulating or injecting down drillpipe. Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .

13. Nozzles are (3) 17’s (32nd of an inch). mud motor that requires a flow rate of 240 gpm resulting in a 400-psi on-bottom pressure differential.Example Given: The reservoir described above. Find: The circulating standpipe pressure at the top and bottom of the formation. Assume the pressure drop through the fractures is 100 psi and average injection water viscosity is 0. A directional hole is to be drilled with a 4¾-in. Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering . MWD pressure drop is equal to 150 psi. The MWD and Motor together have a total length of 60 ft.3 lb/ft.5 cp. The drillpipe to be used is 3½-in. No Drill Collars are in the string.

129 psi 948 psi 0 psi 150 psi 400 psi 100 psi 100 psi 4.616 psi Formation Bottom: 4.129+948+0+150+400+100+100=5.156 psi 710 psi 0 psi 150 psi 400 psi 100 psi 100 psi Formation Top: 4.827psi Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering PSPINJECTION .Example Formation Top PSPPstatic ΔPDP ΔPDC ΔPMWD ΔPMotor ΔPBit ΔPfrac PSPINJECTION Formation Bottom 4.156+713+0+150+400+100+100=5.

120 psi 915 psi 0 psi 150 psi 400 psi 120 psi 100 psi 3.222+0+150+400+120+100=5.222 psi 0 psi 150 psi 400 psi 120 psi 100 psi PSPINJECTION PSPINJECTION Formation Top: 3.050 psi 1.042psi Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .805psi Formation Bottom: 3.000 psi in the example above. then the standpipe pressures will be as follows: Formation Top Formation Bottom PSPPstatic ΔPDP ΔPDC ΔPMWD ΔPMotor ΔPBit ΔPfrac = = = = = = = 3.050+1. If the injection fluid is changed to 10.8 cp).Example If the circulating system is limited to only 5.120+915+0+150+400+120+100= 4.0 ppg (average viscosity of 0. the injection fluid density can be increased to lower the required injection pressure.

0408 (IDHole2 .Fluid Volume Requirements The drillpipe injection rate during Mudcap operations can be expressed simply as: QDP = 0.ODDrillpipe2)/AV Where: QDP IDHole ODDrillpipe AV injection rate down the drillpipe. in. gpm hole or casing inside diameter. Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering . in. annular velocity across drillpipe-casing annulus. drillpipe outside diameter. ft/min.

Where: QDP DailyCum QDP daily cumulative injection volume down the drillpipe. bbls defined by equation above Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .Fluid Volume Requirements The cumulative daily drillpipe injection volume consumed may be expressed as: QDP DailyCum = (18/24)QDP(60)(24/42) This assumes 18 hrs of circulation/injection over a 24-hour period.

125 2 – 3.0408 (6.Fluid Volume Requirements Given: MCD is planned for a 6 1/8-in.5 2)/100 = 103 gpm QDP DailyCum = 25. 13.7*103 = 2. QDP = 0. mud motor.649 bbls/day Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering . hole using 3½in. Assume desired minimum AV = 100 ft/min Find: Minimum injection rate and minimum daily consumption of injection fluid.3 lb/ft drillpipe and 4¾-in..

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .Fluid Volume Requirements Annular volumes will depend upon whether the operator desires continuous or periodic injection of annular fluids or whether a floating mudcap is to be used.

029 Where: QAnn SF VHM T PI IDHole ODDrillpipe periodic annular injection volume. ft/min. bbls.Fluid Volume Requirements The amount of fluid to inject into the annulus periodically can be estimated by: QAnn = (SF)VHMTPI(IDHole2 -DDrillpipe2)/1. min. Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering . time period between injection volumes. inc. hole or casing inside diameter. safety factor hydrocarbon migration rate. drillpipe outside diameter. inc.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering . bbls/day. time period between injection volumes. periodic annular injection volume. bbls. min.Fluid Volume Requirements An estimate of the cumulative volume injected into the annulus daily can be determined with: QAnn Daily Cum = 24*60*QAnn/TPI Where: QAnn Daily Cum QAnn T PI annular daily cumulative injection volume.

Find: The minimum daily annular fluid or mudcap volume requirement. Assume a safety factor of 2. QAnn Daily Cum = 24*60*22/30 = 1.5 2)/1.125 2 -3. 13. hole is planned to be drilled using 3½in. Use the periodic injection method with time between injection periods equal to 30 minutes.Given: MCD is planned for a sour gas well in a fractured reservoir.029 = 22 bbls. Use a gas migration rate of 15 ft/min.. A 6 1/8-in. Example QAnn = 2*15*30*(6.060 bbls/day Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .3 lb/ft drillpipe.

Snub Drilling UBD operation utilizing a snubbing unit or coiled tubing unit. Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering . Expense is justifiable if very high formation pressures are anticipated. and uncontrollable loss of circulation is expected.

SNUBBING CABLES COUNTER BALANCE WEIGHTS SNATCH BLOCK PIPE GUIDE TRAVELING SLIP ASSEMBLY OPERATOR’S SLIP CONSOLE OPERATOR’S BOP CONSOLE WORK BASKET UPPER CABLE GUIDE STAND GUIDE STATIONARY SLIP ASSEMBLY SHEAVES SWIVEL BASE ASSEMBLY Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .

DUAL SHEAVE DROWN SWIWEL STARTING VALVE TONG ARM POWER TONG PIPE ELEVATOR QIN POLE TRAVELING SLIPS ROTARY TABLE KELLY HOSE CONTROL CONSOLE WORK BASKET DUAL WINCH STATIONARY SLIPS STAND PIPE STRIPPER BOP RISER SPOOLS PIPE RACKS HYDRAULIC EQUALIZING VALVES POWER PACK FUEL TANK TOOL BOX PUMP MANIFOLD HOSE BASKET Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .

7” 26# @ 8128’ Pilot hole dressed off to 8285” Top of productive interval @ 8157’ KOP @ 8302’ 60 deg 6-1/8” Hole to 8550’ 4-3/4” Hole FORMATION DIP 6-80 N 820E SHALE Target Center (Primary Target) (Secondary Target) SHALE 8558’ 8578’ 8594’ 8618’ Pilot Hole Top of SHALE 8821’ Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .

10M Install companion flange w/2” WECO 1502 thread Drilling Spool 7-1/16”.5M RIG FLOOR Cameron single 7-1/6”. 5M x 7-1/16”. 10M Annular Preventer Cameron 7-1/16”. 15M DSA 7-1/16”. 10M x 7-1/16”. 15M Frac Valve 7-1/16”. BOP stack ( courtesy of Signa Engineering Corporation) Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering . 10M x 7-1/16”.Drilling Spool 7-1/16”. 10M TUBING HEAD 11”. 15M x 10M Cameron “U” double 7-1/16”. 5M x 9-5/8”. 10M Outlet with (2) 1-13/16” 10M Gate Valve SOW CASING HEAD 11”. 10M Cameron “U” double 7-1/16”.

L CHOKE MANUAL CHOKE GAS + LIQUID Prevailing Wind Direction WELLHEAD Snub drilling choke system ( courtesy of Signa Engineering Corporation) Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .FLARE PIT 6” GAS 6” GAS Gas LIQUID Buster SKIMMER LIQUID Gas Buster 4” GAS MUD PIT ADJUSTABLE MANUAL CHOKE DRILLING FLUID RETURN SAND SEPARATER ALL GAS DRILLING FLUID RETURN HYD.

four phase separator and a fully closed surface system. is used to handle the returned fluids. A pressurized. Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .Closed Systems Refers to UBD operations with a specific surface system.

Ignitor Flere Stack Sample Catcher Production Tank Pressure Vessel Choke Manifold Stack N2 Pumpers Mix Drilling Fluid Tank Rig Pump Vaporizor A typical closed surface system (modified after Lunan. Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering . 19942).

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering . 19957). 508. 244.5mm Flow control arrangement (after Saponja. 339.0mm Intermediate Casing 1300-1450m.7mm Production Casing 1890m.Rotating Blow out Rotating Blow out Preventer/Diverter Preventer/Diverter RBOP Height 1700 mm RBOP To Shala Shaker ESD Northland Manifold 6” Gate Valve 4” Globe Valves Wills Choke Choke Line Connected to Northland Separator Manifold Separator 200 psi Vessel Flare Stack Sample Catchers Annular Returns to Choke Manifold and Separator Annular Preventer 127mm (5”) Pipe Rams Kill Line Shear/Blind Rams 127mm (5”) Pipe Rams Kill Line Tubing Spool Casing Spool Choke Line Connected to Rig Manifold HCR Choke Rig Manifold Water Returned to Rig Tanks Oil Storage/ Transport Choke Flare Pit Surface Casing 300-400m.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering . 199412).Valve #2 Sample Catcher #1 Flow Direction Output Data Header Sample Catcher #2 Full Bore Valve #2 Valve #3 Full Bore Valve #1 Valve #1 Choke Bypass Well Effluents Flow Direction Input Data Header Valve #4 Integrated flow control and sample catcher manifold (after Lunan and Boote.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering .Adjustable Partition Plates Well Effluents In Gas Out Gas Gas Velocity Reducer Continuous Pressurized Solids Transfer Pump A typical. four-phase separator. for underbalance drilling (after Lunan and Boote. horizontal. 199412).

Production tank.Other Surface Equipment Cuttings filter. Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering . Flare stack/pit. Water tank. Heater. Degasser. Solids tank. Instrumentation.