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An entire module devoted to IP addresses.
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Structure of an IP address Subnetting CIDR IP Version 6 addresses
IP Addresses 32 bits version (4 bits) header length Type of Service/TOS (8 bits) flags (3 bits) Total Length (in bytes) (16 bits) Fragment Offset (13 bits) Header Checksum (16 bits) Identification (16 bits) TTL Time-to-Live (8 bits) Protocol (8 bits) Source IP address (32 bits) Destination IP address (32 bits) Ethernet Header IP Header TCP Header Application data Ethernet Trailer Ethernet frame .
143.IP Addresses 32 bits 0x4 0x5 9d08 12810 0x06 128.144 184.108.40.206.21 0x00 0102 4410 00000000000002 8bff Ethernet Header IP Header TCP Header Application data Ethernet Trailer Ethernet frame .
is a 32 bit long identifier .What is an IP Address? • An IP address is a unique global address for a network interface • An IP address: .encodes a network number (network prefix) and a host number .
.255]: • Example: 10000000 1st Byte = 128 10001111 2nd Byte = 143 10001001 3rd Byte = 137 10010000 4th Byte = 144 128.Dotted Decimal Notation • IP addresses are written in a so-called dotted decimal notation • Each byte is identified by a decimal number in the range [0.137.144 .143.
. network prefix host number • How do we know how long the network prefix is? – The network prefix is implicitly defined (see class-based addressing) – The network prefix is indicated by a netmask.Network prefix and Host number • The network prefix identifies a network and the host number identifies a specific host (actually. interface on the network).
edu 128.144/16 » Network prefix is 16 bits long .144 255.255.0 or ffff0000 128.cs.143.144 • Network id is: • Host number is: • Network mask is: • Prefix notation: 128.0 137.0.143 137.virginia.0.143.Example • Example: ellington.137.
– Solution 2: Add another University Network Engineering School Library Medical School level of hierarchy to the IP addressing structure Subnetting .Subnetting • Problem: Organizations have multiple networks which are independently managed – Solution 1: Allocate one or more addresses for each network • Difficult to manage • From the outside of the organization. each network must be addressable.
subnets are treated as separate networks • Subnet structure is not visible outside the organization . • Result is a 3-layer hierarchy network prefix host number network prefix • Then: subnet number host number extended network prefix • Subnets can be freely assigned within the organization • Internally.Basic Idea of Subnetting • Split the host number portion of an IP address into a subnet number and a (smaller) host number.
Typical Addressing Plan for an Organization that uses subnetting • Each layer-2 network (Ethernet segment.143.8.0 / 24 128. 220.127.116.11/16 18.104.22.168 / 24 128. FDDI segment) is allocated a subnet address.143.143.0 / 24 .22.214.171.124 / 24 128.143.0 / 24 126.96.36.199.71.0 / 24 128.0 / 24 128.
• Note: Length of the subnet mask need not be identical at all subnetworks. • Reduces router complexity. Since external routers do not know about subnetting. the complexity of routing tables at external routers is reduced. . IP addresses use a 3-layer hierarchy: » Network » Subnet » Host • Improves efficiency of IP addresses by not consuming an entire address space for each physical network.Advantages of Subnetting • With subnetting.
CIDR .Classless Interdomain Routing • Goals: – Restructure IP address assignments to increase efficiency – Hierarchical routing aggregation to minimize route table entries Key Concept: The length of the network id (prefix) in the IP addresses is kept arbitrary • Consequence: Routers advertise the IP address and the length of the prefix .
0. the network is assigned a continuous block of 1024 addresses with a 22-bit long prefix .2.0/18 • "18" says that the first 18 bits are the network part of the address (and 14 bits are available for specific host addresses) • The network part is called the prefix • Assume that a site requires a network address with 1000 addresses • With CIDR.CIDR Example • CIDR notation of a network address: 192.
192 hosts 16.072 hosts 262.536 hosts 131.048 hosts 4.144 hosts 524.CIDR: Prefix Size vs.024 hosts 2. Network Size CIDR Block Prefix /27 /26 /25 /24 /23 /22 /21 /20 /19 /18 /17 /16 /15 /14 /13 # of Host Addresses 32 hosts 64 hosts 128 hosts 256 hosts 512 hosts 1.288 hosts .768 hosts 65.384 hosts 32.096 hosts 8.
0/18. 206.CIDR and Address assignments • Backbone ISPs obtain large block of IP addresses space and then reallocate portions of their address blocks to their customers.0. e.68..g. and allocated a block of 1.384 (214) IP addresses • Suppose a client requires 800 host addresses • With classful addresses: need to assign a class B address (and waste ~64.0/22.700 addresses) or four individual Class Cs (and introducing 4 new routes into the global Internet routing tables) • With CIDR: Assign a /22 block. .0. which represents 16.024 (210) IP addresses.64. Example: • Assume that an ISP owns the address block 206.
88.0/18 188.8.131.52.0/24 Organization z1 : 209.CIDR and Routing Information Company X : ISP X owns: 184.108.40.206.0.0/22 Internet Backbone ISP y : 209.237.0/26 .88.237.192/26 Organization z2 : 209.64.0/15 209.188.0/21 206.232.
Internet ISP X sends everything which Backbone matches the prefix: 206.237.0/24 to ISP y 206.0.192/26 to Organizations z1 204.0.0/21 ISP y : 209.68.64. z220.127.116.11.237.0/22 to Company X.0/22 ISP y sends everything which matches ISP X owns: the prefix: 206. ISP Y.0/24 Backbone sends everything which matches the prefixes 18.104.22.168/18. Organization z1 : 209.0.0/15. 209.0/26 to Organizations z2 209.192/26 Organization z2 : 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.0/18 209.237.0/21 to ISP X.88. Company X : ISP X does not know about Organizations z1.CIDR and Routing Information Backbone routers do not know anything about Company X.0.232. 204.237. 209.188. or Organizations z1.0/15 209.0/26 .88.237. z2.88.
88.0.0 .2.2. VA: 188.8.131.52.3.92.170 2 88 170 11001111 00000010 01011000 10101010 Belongs to: City of Charlottesville.255 11001111 00000010 01011000 00000000 Belongs to: Cable & Wireless USA 207.0.arin.255.88.255 11001111 00000000 00000000 00000000 .net/whois/ 207.0 .Example • The IP Address: 207 You can find about ownership of IP addresses in North America via http://www.
0.0/15 • Longest prefix match: Routing table lookup finds the routing entry that matches the longest prefix Prefix What is the outgoing interface for 128.0.CIDR and Routing • Aggregation of routing table entries: – 128.0/4 Interface interface #5 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.0/9 interface #2 128.0/17 interface #1 Routing table .0/16 and 18.104.22.168.0/16 are represented as 22.214.171.124 ? 128.
IP Version 6 • IP Version 6 – Is the successor to the currently used IPv4 – Specification completed in 1994 – Makes improvements to IPv4 (no revolutionary changes) • One (not the only !) feature of IPv6 is a significant increase in size of the IP address to 128 bits (16 bytes) • IPv6 will solve – for the foreseeable future – the problems with IP addressing .IPv6 .
IPv6 Header 32 bits v e rsion (4 bits) Traffic Class (8 bits) Payload Le ngth (16 bits) Flow Labe l (24 bits) Ne xt He ade r (8 bits) Hop Limits (8 bits) Source IP addre ss (128 bits) De stination IP addre ss (128 bits) Ethernet Header IPv6 Header TCP Header Application data Ethernet Trailer Ethernet frame .
IPv4: Address Comparison • IPv4 has a maximum of 232 4 billion addresses • IPv6 has a maximum of 2128 = (232)4 4 billion x 4 billion x 4 billion x 4 billion addresses .IPv6 vs.
::80:8F:89:90 ::128.144 . Convention allows to use IPv4 notation for the last 32 bits.137.143.Notation of IPv6 addresses • Convention: The 128-bit IPv6 address is written as eight 16bit integers (using hexadecimal digits for each integer) CEDF:BP76:3245:4464:FACE:2E50:3025:DF12 • Short notation: • Abbreviations of leading zeroes: CEDF:BP76:0000:0000:009E:0000:3025:DF12 CEDF:BP76:0:0:9E :0:3025:DF12 • “:0000:0000” can be written as “::” CEDF:BP76:0:0:FACE:0:3025:DF12 CEDF:BP76::FACE:0:3025:DF12 • IPv6 addresses derived from IPv4 addresses have 96 leading zero bits.
IPv6 Provider-Based Addresses • The first IPv6 addresses will be allocated to a provider-based plan 010 Registry Provider Subscriber Subnetwork Interface ID ID ID ID ID • Type: Set to “010” for provider-based addresses • Registry: identifies the agency that registered the address The following fields have a variable length (recommeded length in “()”) • • • • Provider: Id of Internet access provider (16 bits) Subscriber: Id of the organization at provider (24 bits) Subnetwork: Id of subnet within organization (32 bits) Interface: identifies an interface at a node (48 bits) .
Datagrams sent to an anycast address are sent to one of the members in the group. Datagrams sent to a multicast address are sent to all members of the group – Anycast – identifies a group. .More on IPv6 Addresses • The provider-based addresses have a similar flavor as CIDR addresses • IPv6 provides address formats for: – Unicast – identifies a single interface – Multicast – identifies a group.
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