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Management Fundamentals

Concepts, Applications, Skills Development

Managing Change:
Culture, Innovation, and Diversity
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Technology

Strategy

4 Types of Change
People

Structure

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Types of Organizational Change


STRATEGY
Corporate
(growth, stability and turnaround and retrenchment)

STRUCTURE
Principles
(unity of command and direction, chain of command, span of management, division of labor, coordination, balanced responsibility and authority, delegation, and flexibility)

TECHNOLOGY
Machines Systems Process Information Process Automation

PEOPLE
Skills Performance Attitudes Behavior

Business Level
(prospecting, defending, and analyzing)

Functional
(marketing, operations, finance and human resources.

Authority
(formal and informal, levels of, line and staff, and centralized and decentralized)

Organizational Design
(departmentalization)

Job Design
(job simplification, rotation, enlargement, enrichment, and work teams) 7-2

MIS
Management Information Systems

Formal systems for collecting, processing, and disseminating information that aids managers in decision making.
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Change Process Stages


Denial
Resistance Exploration Commitment
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Resistance to Change and Ways to Overcome It


Resistance to Change
Uncertainty Inconvenience Self-interest

Overcoming Resistance
Trust climate for change

Plan
State why change is needed and how it will affect employees Create a win-win situation Involve employees Provide support
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Loss
Control

3 Major Sources of Resistance

Facts
Beliefs

Values

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Others Self
Work Environment

3 Major Focuses of Resistance


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Resistance Matrix
Sources of Resistance (fact belief value)

1. Facts about self


I never did the task before. I failed the last time I tried.

4. Beliefs about self


Im too busy to learn it. Ill do it, but dont blame me if its wrong.

7. Values to self
I like the way I do my job now. Why change? I like working in a group.

self)

2.. Facts about others


She has the best performance record in the department. Other employees told me its hard to do.

5. Beliefs about others


He just pretends to be busy to avoid extra work. Shes better at it than I am; let her do it.

8 .Values to others
Let someone else do it; I do not want to work with her. I like working with him. Dont cut him from our department.

Focus of Resistance (work

other

3. Facts about the work environment


Why dont you pay me more to do it? Its over 100 degrees. Cant we wait?

6. Beliefs about the work environment


This is a lousy job. The pay here is too low.

9. Values to work environment


I dont care if we meet the goal or not. The new task will make me work inside. Id rather be outside. 7-8

Intensity (high, medium, or low for each box)

3 Levels of Culture
Level 1 Behavior

Level 2 Values & Beliefs

Level 3 Assumptions
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1. Encourage Risk Taking

2. Intrapreneurship
3. Open Systems

4. Focus on Objectives
5. Acceptance of Ambiguity and Impractical Ideas

Innovative Culture Characteristics

6. Tolerance of Conflict

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TQM Core Values


To focus everyone in the organization on delivering customer value Continuously improve the system and processes.
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Diversity
The degree of differences among members of a group or organization.
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Valuing Diversity
Emphasizes training employees of different races and ethnicity, religions, genders, ages, and abilities and with other differences to function effectively together.
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Managing Diversity
Emphasizes fully utilizing resources through organizational actions that meet all employees needs. Can only be successful with a change in culture.

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Change Models
Lewins Change Model

A Comprehensive Change Model

Step 1. Unfreezing

Step 2. Moving.
Step 3. Refreezing.

Step 1. Recognize the need for change. Step 2. Identify possible resistance to change and plan how to overcome it. Step 3. Plan the change interventions. Step 4. Implement the change interventions. Step 5. Control the change.
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OD Interventions
Training/Development

Forcefield Analysis
Survey Feedback

Grid OD

OD
Interventions

Sensitivity Training Team-Building Process Consultation Job Design Direct Feedback


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