41 views

Uploaded by Debalina Dass

Questions and answers on Work, power, energy and motion.

- Notes 16
- Work, Power and Energy
- Physics: Work practice problems
- Physics - Chapter - 1 - Work and Energy
- work energy
- Wind Experimental Kit
- impact of jet.pdf
- Semester Exam HONORS Study Guide-1
- 01_XI-IC FINAL PAPER.pdf
- Wisconsin-Public-Service-Corp-CG-5
- physics
- lect13_14.pdf
- Aieee Previous Year
- 6.Work Power Energy
- DIgSILENT Vector Diagram.pdf
- Physics Model Paper NEW 3
- Lec 01-27-02-2019 - Introductory Mechanics
- Con4444444yyys1ervative Force
- Work-Energy.pdf
- Work, Power & Energy Introduction

You are on page 1of 93

Work Done by a Constant Force

Force F points in the same direction as the

resulting displacement s

W=Fs

2

SI Unit of Work: newton

.

meter=joule(J)

System Force

*

Distance = Work

SI newton(N) meter(m) joule(J)

CGS dyne(dyn)

centimeter(cm)

erg

BE pound(lb) foot(ft)

foot

.

pound

(ft

.

lb)

s F W ) cos ( u =

Units of Measurement for Work

3

Example 1. Pulling a Suitcase-

on-Wheels

4

Find the work done by a 45.0 N force in

pulling the suitcase at an angle for

a distance s=75.0 m

= 0 . 50 u

J m N s F W 2170 ) 0 . 75 ( 0 . 50 cos ) 0 . 45 ( ) cos ( = = = u

No work done due to Fsin

u

F and s in the same direction positive work

F and s in the opposite direction negative work

5

Example 2. Bench-Pressing

The weight lifter is bench-pressing a barbell whose

weight is 710N. In part (b) of the figure, he raises

the barbell a distance of 0.65m above his chest, and

in part (c) he lowers it the same distance.

6

The weight is raised and lowered at a constant

velocity. Determine the work done on the

barbell by the weight lifter during (a) the

lifting phase and (b) the lowering phase.

(a)

(b)

J m N s F W 460 ) 65 . 0 ( 0 cos ) 710 ( ) cos ( = = = u

J m N s F W 460 ) 65 . 0 ( 180 cos ) 710 ( ) cos ( = = = u

cos180

0

= -1

7

Example 3. Accelerating a Crate

A 120kg crate on the flatbed of a

truck that is moving with an

acceleration of a=+1.5m/s

2

along

the positive x axis. The crate does

not slip with respect to the truck,

as the truck undergoes a

displacement whose magnitude is

s=65m. What is the total work

done on the crate by all of the

forces acting on it?

8

Forces that act on the crate:

(1) the weight W=mg of the crate,

(2) the normal force F

N

exerted by the flatbed,

(3) the static frictional force f

s

.

N s m kg ma f

s

180 ) / 5 . 1 )( 120 (

2

= = =

J m N s f W

s

4

10 2 . 1 ) 65 ( 0 cos ) 180 ( ) cos ( = = = u

9

Check your understanding 1

A suitcase is hanging straight down from your hand as you

ride an escalator. Your hand exerts a force on the suitcase

and this force does work.Which one of the following

statements is correct?

(a) The work is negative when you ride up the escalator and

positive when you ride down the escalator.

(b) The work is positive when you ride up the escalator and

negative when you ride down the escalator.

(c) The work is positive irrespective of whether you ride up or

down the escalator.

(d) The work is negative irrespective of whether you ride up

or down the escalator.

Answer: (b)

10

The Work-Energy Theorem and

Kinetic Energy

11

Concepts At a Glance:

In physics, when a net force performs work on an

object, there is always a result from the effort.

The result is a change in the Kinetic energy.

What is Kinetic Energy?

Energy associated with motion.

KE=(1/2)mv

2

The relationship that relates work to the change

in kinetic energy is known as the Work-energy

theorem.

12

Definition of Kinetic Energy:

The kinetic energy KE of an object with mass m

and speed v is given by

2

2

1

mv KE =

SI Unit of Kinetic Energy: joule(J)

as v v

f

2

2

0

2

+ =

a

v v

s

f

2

2

0

2

13

= mas s F) (

Work done by net ext. force

2

0

2

2

1

2

1

) ( mv mv s F

f

=

Work done by

net ext. force

Final KE Initial KE

14

The Work-Energy Theorem

When a net external force does work W on

an object, the kinetic energy of the object

changes from its initial value of KE

0

to a final

value of KE

f

, the difference between the two

values being equal to the work:

2

0

2

0

2

1

2

1

mv mv KE KE W

f f

= =

15

Example 4. Deep Space 1

16

The space probe Deep Space 1 was launched October 24,

1998. Its mass was 474kg. The goal of the mission was to

test a new kind of engine called an ion propulsion drive,

which generates only a weak thrust, but can do so for

long periods of time using only small amounts of fuel. The

mission has been spectacularly successful. Consider the

probe traveling at an initial speed of v

0

=275m/s. No forces

act on it except the 56.0-mN thrust of its engine. This

external force F is directed parallel to the displacement s

of magnitude 2.42

*

10

9

m. Determine the final speed of the

probe, assuming that the mass remains nearly constant.

17

) 10 42 . 2 ( 0 cos ) 10 0 . 56 ( ) cos (

9 3

m N s F W = =

u

=1.36

*

10

8

J

2 8

0

) / 275 )( 474 (

2

1

) 10 36 . 1 ( s m kg J KE W KE

f

+ = + =

=1.54

*

10

8

J

m

KE

v

f

f

) ( 2

=

kg

J

474

) 10 54 . 1 ( 2

8

=

=806 m/s

18

Example 5. Downhill Skiing

19

A 58 kg skier is coasting down a 25

0

slope. A kinetic

frictional force of magnitude f

k

=70N opposes her

motion. Near the top of the slope, the skiers speed

is v

0

=3.6m/s. Ignoring air resistance, determine the

speed v

f

at a point that is displaced 57m downhill.

N s m kg f mg F

k

70 25 sin ) / 80 . 9 )( 58 ( 25 sin

2

= =

=+170 N

20

KE

f

=W+KE

0

=9700J+(1/2)(58kg)(3.6m/s)

2

=10100J

m

KE

v

f

f

) ( 2

=

s m

kg

J

/ 19

58

) 10100 ( 2

= =

21

Check your understanding 2

A rocket is at rest on the launch pad. When the

rocket is launched, its kinetic energy increases.

Is the following statement true or false?

The amount by which the kinetic energy

increases is equal to the work done by the force

generated by the rockets engine.

Answer: False

22

Conceptual Example 6. Work and

Kinetic Energy

A satellite moving abut the earth in a

circular orbit and in an elliptical

orbit. The only external force that acts

on the satellite is the gravitational

force. For these two orbits, determine

whether the kinetic energy of the

satellite changes during the motion.

KE changes in the elliptical orbit,

but not in the circular orbit.

In circular motion, F S always

no work done.

23

Gravitational Potential Energy

Work Done by the Force of Gravity

W

gravity

=(mg cos0

0

)(h

0

-h

f

)=mg(h

0

-h

f

)

24

Example 7. A Gymnast on a

Trampoline

25

A gymnast springs vertically upward from a

trampoline. The gymnast leaves the trampoline at a

height of 1.20m and reaches a maximum height of

4.80m before falling back down. All heights are

measured with respect to the ground. Ignoring air

resistance, determine the initial speed v

0

with which

the gymnast leaves the trampoline.

) 80 . 4 20 . 1 ( / 80 . 9 ( 2 ) ( 2

2

0 0

m m s m h h g v

f

= =

=8.40 m/s

W

gravity

=mg (h

0

-h

f

)

26

Gravitational Potential Energy

W

gravity

= mgh

0

- mgh

f

Initial

gravitationa

l potential

energy PE

0

Final

gravitational

potential

energy PE

f

27

Definition of Gravitational Potential Energy

The gravitational potential energy PE is the energy

that an object of mass m has by virtue of its

position relative to the surface of the earth. That

position is measured by the height h of the object

relative to an arbitrary zero level:

PE=mgh

SI Unit of gravitational potential energy: joule (J)

28

Conservative Versus Non-

conservative Forces

29

Definition of a Conservative Force

Version 1: A force is conservative when the work it

does on a moving object is independent of the path

between the objects initial and final positions.

Version 2: A force is conservative when it does no

net work on an object moving around a closed path,

starting and finishing at the same point.

30

2

0

2

0

2

1

2

1

) ( mv mv W h h mg

f nc f

= +

Work done by external forces =

KE A

i.e,

2

0

2

2

1

2

1

mv mv W W

f nc c

= +

31

PE KE W

nc

A + A =

W

nc

= (KE

f

- KE

0

) + (PE

f

- PE

0

)

Change in

kinetic energy

Change in gravitational

potential energy

Net work

done by non-

conservative

forces

) ( )

2

1

2

1

(

0

2

0

2

mgh mgh mv mv W

f f nc

+ =

32

The Conservation of Mechanical

Energy

33

Total mechanical energy: the sum of kinetic

energy and gravitational potential energy

E = KE + PE

W

nc

= (KE

f

- KE

0

) + (PE

f

- PE

0

)

W

nc

= (KE

f

+ PE

f

)

- (KE

0

+ PE

0

)

E

f

E

0

W

nc

= E

f

- E

0

34

Suppose W

nc

=0J, so E

f

= E

0

mv

f

2

+mgh

f

= mv

0

2

+mgh

0

The principle of Conservation of Mechanical Energy

The total mechanical energy (E=KE+PE) of an

object remains constant as the object moves,

provided that the net work done by external non-

conservative forces is zero, W

nc

=0J

2

1

2

1

35

36

37

Example 8. A Daredevil

Motorcyclist

38

A motorcyclist is trying to leap across the canyon by

driving horizontally off the cliff at a speed of 38.0

m/s. Ignoring air resistance, find the speed with

which the cycle strikes the ground on the other side.

(1/2)mv

f

2

+mgh

f

= (1/2) mv

0

2

+mgh

0

) ( 2

0

2

0 f f

h h g v v + =

) 0 . 35 0 . 70 )( / 80 . 9 ( 2 ) / 9 . 38 (

2 2

m m s m s m v

f

+ =

=46.2 m/s

39

Check your understanding 3

Some of the following situations are consistent with the principle

of conservation of mechanical energy, and some are not.

Which ones are consistent with the principle?

(a) An object moves uphill with an increasing speed.

(b) An object moves uphill with a decreasing speed.

(c) An object moves uphill with a constant speed.

(d) An object moves downhill with an increasing speed.

(e) An object moves downhill with a decreasing speed.

(f) An object moves downhill with a constant speed.

(b) And (d)

40

Conceptual Example 9. The

Favorite Swimming Hole

A rope is tied to a tree limb

and used by a swimmer to

swing into the water below.

The person starts from rest

with the rope held in the

horizontal position, swings

downward, and then lets go

of the rope.

41

Three forces act on him: his weight, the tension in the rope, and

the force due to air resistance. His initial height h

0

and final

height h

f

are known. Considering the nature of these forces,

conservative versus non-conservative, can we use the principle

of conservation of mechanical energy to find his speed v

f

at the

point where he lets go of the rope?

If W

nc

= 0 (work due to nonconservative forces)

conservation of energy

Tension and air resistance --- non conservative

So no work done by T.

T is always r to the circular path.

42

Work done by air resistance is nonzero.

So ideally no.

But if ignore air resistance,

f f

mgh mv mgh mv + = +

2

0

2

0

2

1

2

1

) ( 2

0

2

0 f f

h h g v v + =

43

Example 10. The Steel Dragon

The tallest and fastest roller coaster in the world is now

the Steel Dragon in Mie, Japan. The ride includes a

vertical drop of 93.5m. The coaster has a speed of

3.0m/s at the top of the drop. Neglect friction and find

the speed of the riders at the bottom.

(1/2)mv

f

2

+mgh

f

= (1/2) mv

0

2

+mgh

0

E

f

E

0

44

) ( 2

0

2

0 f f

h h g v v + =

) 5 . 93 )( / 80 . 9 ( 2 ) / 0 . 3 (

2

m s m s m v

f

+ =

= 42.9m/s (about 96 mi/h)

45

Example 11. The Steel Dragon,

Revisited

In example 10, we ignored non-conservative forces,

such as friction. In reality, however, such forces are

present when the roller coaster descends. The actual

speed of the riders at the bottom is 41.0 m/s, which is

less than that determined in example 10. Assuming

again that the coaster has a speed of 3.0 m/s at the top,

find the work done by non-conservative forces on a

55.0kg rider during the descent from a height h

0

to a

height h

f

, where h

0

h

f

=93.5m

46

)

2

1

( )

2

1

(

0

2

0

2

mgh mv mgh mv W

f f nc

+ + =

) ( ) (

2

1

0

2

0

2

f f nc

h h mg v v m W =

E

f

E

0

) 5 . 93 )( / 80 . 9 )( 0 . 55 ( ] ) / 3 ( ) / 41 )[( 0 . 55 (

2

1

2 2 2

m s m kg s m s m kg W

nc

=

J 4400 =

47

Example 12. Fireworks

A 0.20kg rocket in a fireworks

display is launched from rest and

follows an erratic flight path to

reach the point P. Point P is 29m

above the starting point. In the

process, 425J of work is done on

the rocket by the non-conservative

force generated by the burning

propellant. Ignoring air resistance

and the mass lost due to the

burning propellant, find the speed

v

f

of the rocket at the point P.

48

)

2

1

( )

2

1

(

0

2

0

2

mgh mv mgh mv W

f f nc

+ + =

m

h h mg mv W

v

f nc

f

)] (

2

1

[ 2

0

2

0

+

=

kg

m s m kg s m kg J

v

f

20 . 0

)] 29 )( / 80 . 9 )( 20 . 0 ( ) / 0 )( 20 . 0 (

2

1

425 [ 2

2 2

+

=

=61m/s

49

Power

The idea of power incorporates both the concepts of

work and time, for power is work done per unit time.

Definition of Average Power

Average power P is the average rate at which work W

is done, and it is obtained by dividing W by the time t

required to perform the work.

t

W

Time

Work

P = =

SI Unit of Power: joule/s=watt (W)

50

Check your understanding 4

Engine A has a greater power rating than engine B. Which one

of the following statements correctly describes the abilities

of these engines to do work?

(a) Engine A and B can do the same amount of work in the

same amount of time.

(b) In the same amount of time, engine B can do more work

than engine A.

(c) Engine A and B can do the same amount of work, but A can

do it more quickly.

Answer: (c)

51

Units of Measurement for Power

System Work / Time = Power

SI joule (J) / second (s) = watt (W)

CGS erg / second (s) =

erg per

second(erg/s)

BE foot.pound / second (s) =

foot.pound

per second

(ft.lb) (ft.lb/s)

52

Time

energy in change

P =

watts ond pound foot horsepower 7 . 745 sec / 550 1 = =

t

Fs

t

W

=

v F P =

53

Example 13. The Power to

Accelerate a Car

A 1.10

*

10

3

kg car, starting from rest, accelerates for

5.00s. The magnitude of the acceleration is

a=4.60m/s

2

. Determine the average power generated

by the net force that accelerates the vehicle.

N s m kg ma F 5060 ) / 60 . 4 )( 10 10 . 1 (

2 3

= = =

54

s m s s m s m at v v

f

/ 0 . 23 ) 00 . 5 )( / 60 . 4 ( ) / 0 (

2

0

= + = + =

) 0 . 78 ( 10 82 . 5 ) / 5 . 11 )( 5060 (

4

hp W s m N v F P = = =

f f

v v v v

2

1

) (

2

1

0

= + =

55

Other Forms of Energy and the

Conservation of Energy

Examples: electrical energy, heat, chemical energy,

nuclear energy.

In general, energy of all types can be converted

from one form to another.

The principle of conservation of energy

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but can

only be converted from one form to another.

56

Work Done by a Variable Force

The work done by a variable force in moving an

object is equal to the area under the graph of Fcos

versus s.

u

57

+ A + A ~

2 2 1 1

) cos ( ) cos ( s F s F W u u

58

Example 14. Work and the

Compound Bow

Find the work that the archer must do in drawing back

the string of the compound bow from 0 to 0.500 m

J

square

J

squares W 5 . 60 ) 250 . 0 )( 242 ( = =

59

Example 15. Skateboarding and

Work

The skateboarder is coasting down a ramp, and there

are three forces acting on her: her weight W

(magnitude = 675 N), a frictional force f ( magnitude =

125 N). That opposes her motion, and a normal force

F

N

(magnitude =612 N). Determine the net work done

by the three forces when she coasts for a distance of

9.2 m.

60

61

Force F Angle S W= (Fcosu) s

W 675N 65.0

0

9.2m W=(675N)(cos 65.0

0

)(9.2m)=+2620J

f 125N 180.0

0

9.2m W=(125N)(cos 180.0

0

)(9.2m)=-1150J

F

N

612N 90.0

0

9.2m W=(612N)(cos 90.0

0

)(9.2m)=0J

The net work done by the three forces is

+2626J+(-1150J)+0J=+1470J

62

Concepts & Calculations Example 16.

Conservation of Mechanical Energy and

the Work-Energy Theorem

h

A

63

A 0.41kg block sliding from A to B along a frictionless

surface. When the block reaches B, it continues to

slide along the horizontal surface BC. The block

slows down, coming to rest at C. The kinetic energy

of the block at A is 37J, and the height of A and B

are 12m and 7m above the ground.

(a) What is the kinetic energy of the block when it

reaches B?

(b) How much work does the kinetic frictional force do

during the BC segment of the trip?

64

A---B motion: What are the forces?

Weight---------------

What is the non conservative work (W

nc

) ?

W

nc

=0 F

N

displacement

Conservation of energy valid for A---B?

K. E at B ? K. E at A

K. E at B < K. E at A

Normal force--------

conservative

non conservative

65

(a) KE

B

+ mgh

B

=

KE

A

+ mgh

A

KE

B

=

KE

A

+ mg(h

A

-h

B

)

=37J+(0.41kg)(9.80m/s

2

)(12m-7m)

=57J

66

0J 0m

W

nc

= KE

C

+ mgh

C

- (KE

B

+mgh

B

)

W

nc

= KE

C

- KE

B

+mg(h

C

-h

B

)

W

nc

= -KE

B

= -57J

Then

(b) For BC Trip, is total energy conserved? Why?

No (Friction W

nc

)

67

Problem 2

REASONING AND SOLUTION Each locomotive does work

W = T(cosu) s= (5.00-10

3

N) cos 20.0 (2.00 -

10

3

m) = 9.40-10

6

J

The net work is then

W

T

= 2W = 2T(cosu) s = 1.88 10

7

J

T

T

68

Problem 16

2820 m/s

apogee

8450 m/s

perigee

69

From the work-energy theorem,

1 1 1

2 2 2 2

f 0 f 0

2 2 2

W mv mv m v v

(

= =

1 2 2 11

2

W (7420 kg) (2820 m/s) (8450 m/s) = 2.35 10 J

(

=

a)

b)

J

11

10 35 . 2

70

Problem 20

To find the work, employ the work-energy theorem,

W = KE

f

KE

0

F = 24N

8.0 M

v

0

= 0

v

f

= 2.0 m/8

16 kg

F

N

P

mg

f

k

f

k

=

k

F

N

F

N

-mg=0

F

N

=mg

71

SOLUTION According to the work-energy theorem, we have

W = W

pull

+ W

f

= KE

f

KE

0

Using Equation 6.1 [W = (F cos ) s] to express each work

contribution, writing the kinetic energy as , and

noting that the initial kinetic energy is zero (the sled starts

from rest), we obtain

2

1

2

mv

( ) ( )

2

1

2

k

pull

f

cos 0 cos180 P s f s mv

W

W

+ =

Work done by the net force (pulling force P and f

k

)

W= W

pulling

+ W

f

72

Solving for the coefficient of kinetic friction gives

( )

( )

( )( ) ( )( )

( )

( )

( )

2

2

1 1

2 2

k

2

cos 0 16 kg 2.0 m/s 24 N 8.0 m

0.13

cos180 16 kg 9.80 m/s 8.0 m

mv P s

mg s

= = =

The angle between the force and the displacement is 0 for

the pulling force (it points in the same direction as the

displacement) and 180 for the frictional force (it points

opposite to the displacement). Equation 4.8 indicates that the

magnitude of the frictional force is f

k

=

k

F

N

, and we know

that the magnitude of the normal force is F

N

= mg. With these

substitutions the work-energy theorem becomes

( ) ( )

2

1

2

k

pull

f

cos 0 cos180 P s mg s mv

W

W

+ =

73

Problem 26

REASONING The work done by the weight of

the basketball is given by Equation 6.1

as , where F = mg is the

magnitude of the weight, u is the angle

between the weight and the displacement, and

s is the magnitude of the displacement. The

drawing shows that the weight and

displacement are parallel, so that u = 0. The

potential energy of the basketball is given by

Equation 6.5 as PE = mgh, where h is the

height of the ball above the ground.

( )

cos W F s u =

s

mg

6.1 m

1.5 m

=0.6g

74

SOLUTION

a. The work done by the weight of the basketball is

( )

cos W F s u = = mg (cos 0)(h

0

h

f

)

= (0.60 kg)(9.80 m/s

2

)(6.1 m 1.5 m) =

27 J

b. The potential energy of the ball, relative to the ground,

when it is released is

PE

0

= mgh

0

= (0.60 kg)(9.80 m/s

2

)(6.1 m) =

36 J

75

d. The change in the balls gravitational potential energy is

APE = PE

f

PE

0

= 8.8 J 36 J = 27 J

We see that the change in the gravitational potential

energy is equal to 27 J = , where W is the work

done by the weight of the ball (see part a).

W

c. The potential energy of the ball, relative to the ground,

when it is caught is

PE

f

= mgh

f

= (0.60 kg)(9.80 m/s

2

)(1.5 m) =

8.8 J

76

Problem 34

Total mechanical energy

conserved?

2 2

1 1

f f 0 0

2 2

mv mgh mv mgh + = +

( ) ( )

( )

2 2

f 0

2

14.0 m/s 13.0 m/s

1.4 m

2 9.80 m/s

h h

= =

Yes (Wconservative

F

N

displacement)

77

Problem 41

REASONING Friction and

air resistance are being

ignored. The normal force

from the slide is

perpendicular to the motion,

so it does no work. Thus, no

net work is done by non-

conservative forces, and the

principle of conservation of

mechanical energy applies.

78

SOLUTION Applying the principle of conservation of

mechanical energy to the swimmer at the top and the bottom

of the slide, we have

1

2

mv

f

2

+ mgh

f

E

f

=

1

2

mv

0

2

+ mgh

0

E

0

If we let h be the height of the bottom of the slide above the

water, , and . Since the swimmer starts from

rest, m/s, and the above expression becomes

1

2

v

f

2

+ gh = gH

v

0

=0

h

f

= h h

0

= H

79

Solving for H, we obtain

H = h+

v

f

2

2g

Before we can calculate H, we must find and h.

Since the velocity in the horizontal direction is

constant,

v

f

=

Ax

At

=

5.00 m

0.500 s

=10.0 m/s

v

f

80

The vertical displacement of the swimmer after

leaving the slide is, from Equation 3.5b (with down

being negative),

Therefore, h = 1.23 m. Using these values of and h

in the above expression for H, we find

H = h+

v

f

2

2g

=1.23 m+

(10.0 m/s)

2

2(9.80 m/s

2

)

= 6.33 m

v

f

( )( ) m s s m t a y

y

23 . 1 500 . 0 / 80 . 9

2

1

2

1

2

2 2

= = =

81

Problem 43

C

2

F

mv

T mg

r

=

r

mv

mg T

2

+ =

r

r

60

rcos60

PE=0

This is the max tension.

82

REASONING AND SOLUTION At the bottom of the

circular path of the swing, the centripetal force is

provided by the tension in the rope less the weight of the

swing and rider. That is,

C

2

F

mv

T mg

r

=

Solving for the mass yields

2

T

m

v

g

r

=

+

83

The energy of the swing is conserved if friction is ignored.

The initial energy, E

0

, when the swing is released is

completely potential energy and is E

0

= mgh

0

,

Conservation of energy

PE

ini

+ KE

ini

= PE

f

+ KE

f

h

0

= r (1 cos 60.0) =

1

2

r

r=2h

0

mgh

0

+ 0 = 0 + (1/2)mv

f

2

0

= 2 v gh gr =

f

84

The expression for the mass now becomes

( )

2

2

8.00 10 N

40.8 kg

2

2 9.80 m/s

T

m

g

= = =

g

r

gh

T

g

r

v

T

m

+

=

+

=

0

2

2

g

T

g g

T

2

=

+

=

85

Problem 48

m=0.75kg

18.0 m/s

No air friction.

86

a. Since there is no air friction, the only force that acts on the

projectile is the conservative gravitational force (its weight). The

initial and final speeds of the ball are known, so the

conservation of mechanical energy can be used to find the

maximum height that the projectile attains.

The conservation of mechanical energy, as expressed by

Equation 6.9b, states that

2 2

1 1

f f 0 0

2 2

0

f

mv mgh mv mgh

E E

+ = +

87

The mass m can be eliminated algebraically from this

equation since it appears as a factor in every term. Solving

for the final height h

f

gives

( )

2 2

1

0 f

2

f 0

v v

h h

g

= +

Setting h

0

= 0 m and v

f

= 0 m/s, the final height, in the

absence of air resistance, is

( ) ( )

( )

2 2

2 2

o f

f

2

18.0 m/ s 0 m/s

16.5 m

2

2 9.80 m/ s

v v

h

g

= = =

88

The work-energy theorem is

( )

( )

2 2

1 1

nc f 0 f 0

2 2

W mv mv mgh mgh = +

b. When air resistance, a non-conservative force, is present, it

does negative work on the projectile and slows it down.

Consequently, the projectile does not rise as high as when there

is no air resistance. The work-energy theorem, in the form of

Equation 6.6, may be used to find the work done by air friction.

Then, using the definition of work, Equation 6.1, the average

force due to air resistance can be found.

89

where W

nc

is the non-conservative work done by air

resistance. According to Equation 6.1, the work can be

written as , where is the average

force of air resistance. As the projectile moves upward, the

force of air resistance is directed downward, so the angle

between the two vectors is u = 180 and cos u = 1. The

magnitude s of the displacement is the difference between

the final and initial heights, s = h

f

h

0

= 11.8 m. With these

substitutions, the work-energy theorem becomes

s F W R

nc

) 180 cos ( =

( )

( )

2 2

1

R f o f 0

2

F s m v v mg h h = +

R

F

90

Solving for gives

R

F

( )

( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

2 2

1

f o f 0

2

R

2 2

2

1

2

0.750 kg 0 m/s 18.0 m/s 0.750 kg 9.80 m/s 11.8 m

2.9 N

11.8 m

m v v mg h h

F

s

+

=

(

+

= =

91

Problem 57

REASONING AND SOLUTION One is the amount of

work or energy generated when one kilowatt of power

is supplied for a time of one hour. From

Equation 6.10a, we know that . Using the fact

that and that 1h = 3600 s, we have

W Pt =

1 kW= 1.0 10

3

J/s

1.0 kWh = (1.0 10

3

J/s)(1 h) = (1.0 10

3

J/s)(3600 s) = 3.6 10

6

J

92

Problem 60

REASONING AND SOLUTION

a. The power developed by the engine is

P = Fv = (2.00 - 10

2

N)(20.0 m/s) =

4.00 10

3

W

mg

37

friction

93

The power developed by the engine is then

P = Fv = (F

a

+ mg sin 37.0)v

P = [2.00 - 10

2

N + (2.50 - 10

2

kg)(9.80 m/s

2

)sin 37.0](20.0 m/s)

3.3510

4

W

=

b. The force required of the engine in order to

maintain a constant speed up the slope is

F = F

a

+ mg sin 37.0

- Notes 16Uploaded byNastabiq Muhammad
- Work, Power and EnergyUploaded byRexM.Villena
- Physics: Work practice problemsUploaded byekdp224
- Physics - Chapter - 1 - Work and EnergyUploaded byAman Lilani
- work energyUploaded bybookdotcom7221
- Wind Experimental KitUploaded byvthiseas
- impact of jet.pdfUploaded byHari Prakash
- Semester Exam HONORS Study Guide-1Uploaded byjmh1990
- 01_XI-IC FINAL PAPER.pdfUploaded byRohan Patel
- Wisconsin-Public-Service-Corp-CG-5Uploaded byGenability
- physicsUploaded byAndrew Zhang
- lect13_14.pdfUploaded byKen Louie
- Aieee Previous YearUploaded byamitkap00r
- 6.Work Power EnergyUploaded byShahbaz Khan
- DIgSILENT Vector Diagram.pdfUploaded byCésar Luis Castillo Chilet
- Physics Model Paper NEW 3Uploaded bykrish
- Lec 01-27-02-2019 - Introductory MechanicsUploaded byLiviu Luca
- Con4444444yyys1ervative ForceUploaded byRavi Yadav
- Work-Energy.pdfUploaded byHasan Nawaz
- Work, Power & Energy IntroductionUploaded byAlyn Mondrano - Alonzo
- Mechanics and Energetics of Load Carriage During Human Walking _ Journal of Experimental BiologyUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- 11_physics_gravition_test_02_answer_l7vs.pdfUploaded byRyan Mills
- Wave RelatedUploaded bytrustny1
- arons.pdfUploaded byJaime
- 2.First Law TDUploaded byvarshasdm1987
- Eng ScienceUploaded byTricky
- SCIENCE 8 - 1.docxUploaded byRaymond Bugagao
- City of CovingtonUploaded byGenability
- WORK AND ENERGY QUESTIONS.Uploaded byHoney Bond
- 7. Dynamics of Fluid Flow Jan 2015 PDFUploaded byburhanuddin

- Activity 04 CollisionUploaded byDebalina Dass
- Properties of gases Lab reportUploaded byDebalina Dass
- Td of Electrochemical Cells Lab ReportUploaded byDebalina Dass
- Ecological Footprint Q & AUploaded byDebalina Dass
- Rolling Ball(1)Uploaded byDebalina Dass
- chem helpUploaded byRobyn Kent
- Assignment 7Uploaded byDebalina Dass
- colloids-generalUploaded byDebalina Dass
- Miller_Indices of Planes, DirectionsUploaded byDebalina Dass
- Home Mortgage_college AlgebraUploaded byDebalina Dass
- The electric fieldUploaded byDebalina Dass
- AP Chemistry Chapter 10Uploaded byDebalina Dass
- Fire Chapter2Uploaded byDebalina Dass
- Color TheoryUploaded byBrian Griffin
- cce-80Uploaded byisalleh
- Assignment 2 Solution[1]Uploaded bySirish Chand Putla
- Grade 7 Text Answers in mathematicsUploaded byDebalina Dass
- Classification of plants.pptUploaded bySha Mercs
- 1398743355-910536Uploaded bySaleh Breakerboy
- Introductory StatisticsUploaded byshagakane
- Physics_1210_Practice_Problems+Ans_2Uploaded byDebalina Dass
- Nuclear chemistry problems solvedUploaded byDebalina Dass
- Molecular Orbitals - Symm DefinedUploaded byDebalina Dass
- Fire Chapter1Uploaded byPierre
- Lecture6_2101Uploaded byDebalina Dass
- Chemistry and Chemical Magic (Gnv64)Uploaded by남은진
- Crystal HandoutsUploaded byArup Das

- ALL Purspose Excel SheetUploaded byPranabesh Chatterjee
- Icra Report on Recent Changes NbfcUploaded byNayeemLakdawala
- Smith-Supplement to the Thesaurus Syriacus-1927.pdf.pdfUploaded byphilologus
- Reach Up Level 2 Wordlist TranslationsUploaded byStephen Jones
- HRM2600 Chapters 6-9 Short AnswersUploaded byKayls12
- Sprite in J2ME GameUploaded byDong Van Hung
- Step-By-Step Risk ManagementUploaded byansari
- Bleaching and Dyeing of Cotton Knitted Fabric Project ReportUploaded byRajesh Kumar Pandey
- Demonetization is a Step in the Right DirectionUploaded bysombans
- Malayan Insurance vs Cuz-ArnaldoUploaded byGigiRuizTicar
- Amot Thermostatic Valve Type B.pdfUploaded byMargaret Daugherty
- Legal NoticesUploaded byjorgitoq
- Lake Contoller iPad Dev7Uploaded bySebastian Wenger
- SCHEME OF WORK CIBMUploaded byintortobusiness
- CIS Solaris 11 Benchmark v1.0.0Uploaded bytalitaysier
- Assignment 1 DigestUploaded byJunfe Parcon
- S.E.C. Lawsuit Against Traders in Heinz Options CaseUploaded byDealBook
- Using KyplotUploaded byAli Abdelrahem
- MARPOL Practical GuideUploaded byMariahob
- Kruskal – Wallis Test.pptxUploaded byGumaranathan Sivapragasam
- Dhanuka AgritechUploaded byAshok Jain
- Cadastral Proceedings(New)Uploaded byRaffy Lopez
- Advanced rocket engineUploaded bymaurizio.desio4992
- Go Mule DocsUploaded byVlad Padina
- ModbusNews_Oct2008Uploaded bySocaciu Viorica
- wallstreetjournal_20171104_TheWallStreetJournalUploaded bysadaq84
- Research CALTUploaded byMarcus Westcliffe
- White v EON and OthersUploaded byzac
- arsiUAS finUploaded byimanharyanto79
- Template_ResumeUploaded byTian Nak