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HVAC Technology Overview

10:00 Introduction

11:00 11:15 12:00 13:00 14:30 15:00 16:00

HVAC Basics
Break AHU Components Lunch Control Theory B1 HVAC Overview Tour of B1 plant rooms Re-cap and Questions

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Heating Ventilating Air Conditioning

Why do we need HVAC ? Human operating parameters

Machine operating parameters

Health & Safety (Operating Theatres)

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Heating Ventilating Air Conditioning How do we achieve it?

By moving heat in or out of an area. Controlling the temperature. By providing a steady supply of fresh filtered air. Controlling the flow of air. By adding or subtracting moisture. Controlling the humidity.
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HVAC Fundamentals Factors affecting comfort


Age Health Dress Physical Activity Air velocity (draughts)

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HVAC Fundamentals
Common Complaints

What is the possible or probable cause of each complaint? And how would we remedy each? Too hot Too cold Too drafty Too stuffy Too noisy Too stinky

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HVAC Fundamentals
What is Heating? The addition of thermal energy - Heat is added to produce a warmer, more comfortable environment.

What is Cooling? The removal of thermal energy - Heat is removed to produce a cooler, more comfortable environment. Cooling is not added, rather heat is removed!

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HVAC Fundamentals
What is Humidity?
Its got a LOT to do with COMFORT! Relative Humidity (RH). - ratio between the actual and the maximum water vapour the air can hold presented as a percentage. Amount of water vapour depends on temperature of the air; its all relative. - Increases when the temperature falls. - Decreases as temperature rises. Absolute humidity is a true measure of moisture content. Wet bulb and dry bulb temperature measurement will reveal all.

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HVAC Fundamentals

Cooling and Heating follow distinct modes of transfer.

Heat transfer by Conduction Radiation Convection

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HVAC Fundamentals

Conduction - direct contact from warmer to cooler surface.

Examples of Conduction: Cooling and heating coils. Cooling system in an car engine. Heat gain through walls. Heat loss through walls.

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HVAC Fundamentals
Convection Colder air is more dense.

Examples of Convection: Gravity system heating; warm air rises! Radiators causes air convection. Things that aid heat convection - unrestricted airflow paths. - volume of the transfer medium. - specific heat of the transfer medium.

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HVAC Fundamentals
Heat radiation takes the form of infrared waves heat waves travel through a transparent medium until it strikes a solid surface. Solid material absorbs the radiation and gets warmer. Examples of Radiation transfer: Sun shining on dark pavement. A patio heater. An overhead radiant unit heater. Things that affect radiation - colour of surfaces - emissivity of glass. - reflective surfaces.

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HVAC Fundamentals
Determining Heating and Cooling Loads:

Design indoor conditions - what are the comfort requirements? - Target temperatures and relative humidity. (for human comfort usually 21C and 50%RH) Design outdoor conditions - Geographic location. - Winter and summer dimension. - Use ASHRAE data.
Equipment then sized to meet Design Conditions

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System Components
What do we need to monitor 1. Temperature For heat transfer the final control element is a valve positioned by an actuator that controls the flow of water/steam. 2. Relative Humidity Correction can be humidifier and dehumidifier. 3. CO2- Damper positioned by an actuator controlling flow of fresh air into the system. 4. Static Pressure sensor Fan speed control. 5. Outside air Temp/RH 6. Filter status 7. Fan status

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Energy Use
Typical commercial building

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System Components
Boilers 1 produce hot water (or sometimes steam) for distribution to the working space. This is done either by heating coils 2 which heat circulated air, or through hot water pipes to radiators 3 Cooling equipment 4 chills water and circulates through cooling coils 5. Air is then blown through the chilled water coils into the space 6. As part of the refrigeration cycle, heat must also be rejected from the system via a cooling tower or air condenser 7. Pumps are used throughout the system to circulate the chilled and hot water to the required areas throughout the building. Stale air is extracted, usually using a fan, via separate ducts and expelled outside 8

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System Components
Controls are used to orchestrate the heat transfer process. They turn equipment on or off and adjust chillers and boilers, air and water flow rates, temperatures and pressures. A controller incorporating one or more temperature sensors 9 inside the workspace sends a signal to the heating or cooling coil actuators. When there is a demand for heating or cooling the controls also send a signal to the chiller and boiler to enable as required. Chillers and boilers often have their own control panels.

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Boilers Hot Water Boiler

Hot Water (kW out)
Heat Coil

Basic Hot Water Loop

Heat Coil

kW transferred to air HEAT! fuel (kW in)

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Steam Boiler
Steam (kW out)
Heat Coil

Steam traps

Basic Steam Loop

Heat Coil

fuel (kW in)

kW transferred to air HEAT!


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Commercial Boiler Design

Staged boilers

Base Loading smaller/larger

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Boiler Combustion Principles Laws of Thermal Dynamics:

1st law of thermodynamics - law of conservation; energy cannot be created or destroyed. But it can be changed from one form to another. Chemical energy is released during conversion; Hydrogen (H) + Carbon (C) + Oxygen (O2) > chemical reaction = energy release, thermal energy (heat). Elements recombine into new compounds; carbon dioxide (CO2) + water vapor (H2O) = gases of combustion. 2nd law; heat always flows from high temp to low temp.

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Combustion Principles Making Heat:

Combustion requires fuel, heat, oxygen. Products of combustion: CO2 H 2O N2 Heat (kWh)

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Condensing Boiler

The flue gases are cooled to the point where water vapor condenses out of the fuel/air mixture. Hence the name.
High efficiency condensing boilers convert more than 87-97% of their fuel into heat, compared to 78% for conventional types.

They have either a larger or a second heat exchanger, which releases latent heat that would otherwise escape up the flue.
High efficiency condensing boilers can be oil or gas. Condensing boilers are the boiler of choice for all modern installations.

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Burner Types
On / Off System This is the simplest control system, and it means that either the burner is firing at full design rate, or it is off. The disadvantage of ON/OFF is that the boiler is subjected to large and often frequent thermal shock every time the boiler fires. Its use is limited to small boilers. Every time the burner shuts down and re-starts, the system must be purged by blowing cold air through the boiler passages. This wastes energy and reduces efficiency. Advantage: Its cheap High / Low This is a slightly more complex system where the burner has two firing rates. The burner operates first at the lower firing rate and then switches to full firing as needed, thereby overcoming the worst of the thermal shock. The burner can also revert to the low fire position at reduced loads, again limiting thermal stresses within the boiler. Modulating A modulating burner will alter the firing rate to match the boiler load over the whole load range. Full modulation means that the boiler keeps firing over the whole range to match the load and minimize thermal stress.
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Boiler Components Flame Detection

For safety boilers must have a way of shutting off fuel quickly if flame is lost. Because of its ability to detect only the true signature of a flame, ultraviolet is commonly used.

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Heat Distribution Systems Circulators

Moves hot water around a building. Operate on Ferris wheel principle.

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Heat Exchangers

Convectors Moves heat into the space Baseboard and Cabinet

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Heat Exchangers

Duct re-heat or Air Handler

Fan Coil Unit (FCU)

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Basic Refrigeration
What are Btus?
Definition: Heat required to raise 1 lb. water 1 F. Heat can be sensible or latent.
vapor superheating

Sensible heat

Latent Heat of Fusion

Sensible Heat

Latent Heat of Vaporization (or Latent Heat of Condensation)

Sensible Heat

Temperatur e in deg. F.

liquid to vapour (boiling)

vapor cooling

212 200
liquid heating liquid cooling

vapor to liquid (condensing)

Other liquids, like Freon, behave similarly, but at differing temperatures depending on pressure.

Ice melting Water freezing

Ice warming

32 0 16
Ice cooling





BTU per pound of water

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Basic refrigeration cycle:
This is a liquid to air heat pump. Notice the cut line between the high pressure side and the low pressure side. Refrigeration works because of this pressure difference.
Metering device EVAPORATOR LPL HPL Liquid line Cooled Air Hot Air CONDENSER


Changes from liquid to vapor

Changes from vapor to liquid


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Freezer application
Heat is absorbed in the evaporator thereby reducing the surrounding air temperature. The condenser is located outside the building. Often referred to as a Split unit system.

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Chiller Plant
Chilled water is used to cool the building.

Water is chilled in evaporator.

Water absorbs heat in the condenser.

Condenser water cooled by evaporation principles.

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Chiller components
Typical evaporator
Water passing through the evaporator gives up heat as the liquid refrigerant boils (evaporates).
Side view
Refrigerant vapour outlet Chilled water outlet (7C) Chilled water inlet (13C) shell Refrigerant liquid inlet


Rapid vaporization (boiling)

end view

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Chiller components
Typical Condenser Water passing through the condenser absorbs heat as the refrigerant vapour condenses.
Side view
Refrigerant vapor inlet


Cooling tower water inlet (35C)


Cooling tower water outlet (29C)

Refrigerant liquid outlet

end view

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Chiller components
Chiller and Tower
The refrigerant loop is basically the same as a split unit air conditioner. Its all about heat transfer!
Hot, moist air out

Heat out

Heat in


Heat out

Cool out

Cool in
Outdoor air in

Cool in Heat out


Cool in
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Used to regulate air flow through an HVAC system.
Direct and regulate the flow of air in a system. Distribute the conditioned air into the building space. Enable critical smoke and fire control schemes. Used in containment and pressurization schemes. Unitary equipment also utilize dampers.

Dampers can be compared to water valves; they exhibit many of the same control elements and must be correctly sized.

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Damper Design

Dampers can be categorized by

Blade design: single, multi, 3-V, airfoil, etc. Blade rotation: parallel or opposed. Shape: round or rectangle. Leakage rating: standard or low leakage.

Application: ventilation, smoke, fire.

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Damper Construction
Parallel Blade vs. Opposed Blade Designs
Each have their specific applications

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Damper Flow Characteristics

Parallel Blade Diverted Air Flow, better mixing


Outdoor Effective mixing of air flows! HTG

Better temperature control and improved coil efficiency.

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Damper Flow Characteristics

Opposed Blade Characteristics
Better for straight line, laminar air flows


In a Face/Bypass application, air flow is laminar, slips through the coil fins more efficiently.

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Damper Applications
Face and Bypass Dampers
Providing heat Control. Inherent freeze protection.

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Damper Applications
Terminal boxes:
Regulate air flow into the space.

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Damper Actuators

Actuator Types

Pneumatic Electric Direct coupled Spring return Low torque / High torque

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Valves come in many shapes and sizes. Control valves are designed to regulate the flow of a liquid.

Two way threaded Unitary Butterfly

Linear Motion

disk Two way Flanged

seat Three way Globe

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Two way valves

Single Seated Valve Suitable for tight shut off. Large valves will require powerful actuator to overcome the pressure acting upwards on the stem.

Double Seated Valve Pressure on the stem is equalised therefore requires less force to close. Not suitable for tight shut off as one seat will close before the other due to valve or stem heat expansion

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Three Way Valves



B Diverting Valve Liquid flow in port AB Position of the valve stem will regulate the proportion of liquid passing to A port or B port.
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Mixing Valve Position of the valve stem will regulate the liquid mix between A port and B port.

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Mixing valves



Fixed temperature Variable flow

Variable temperature Fixed flow

The objective is to regulate the output of the heating coil.

Depending on the scheme the valve may be positioned in the flow or return.

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Diverting valves




Fixed temperature Variable flow

Variable temperature Fixed flow

The objective is to regulate the output of the heating coil.

Depending on the scheme the valve may be positioned in the flow or return.

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If the controlled variable is air temperature and the valve were controlling the flow of hot water to a heater battery then there should be a linear relationship between the valve position and the change in air temperature.


Heat output

0% 0% Valve position 100%

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Ideally, a control system has a linear response over its entire load operating range.
The sensitivity of the control to a change in temperature is then constant throughout the entire control range. A valve needs to be selected that can provides this linear system response.

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Linear Valves

A valve that provides a flow-to-lift relationship that is directly proportional.



0% 0% Valve position 100%

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Equal Percentage Valves

A valve which changes flow by an equal percentage regardless of flow rate. These valves are designed to compensate for non-linear heat transfer characteristics of heating coils.



Heat output


0% 0% Flow 100%

0% 0%

Valve position


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Flow Characteristics
Linearity of system response determines a valves flow characteristic.

Non-Linear system Response 100%

Heat output

Resultant Linear System Response

Equal Percentage Control Valve 0% Valve position 100%

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Temperature Sensors

Resistance Temperature Devices (RTDs) change resistance with varying temperature. RTDs have a positive temperature coefficient (resistance increases with temperature). Example: PT100 PT1000 BALCO 500 Thermistors are solid-state resistance-temperature sensors with a negative temperature coefficient. Example: NTC 20K NTC10K


Temperature Sensors

Temperature sensors are designed for use in


- Room - Duct - Pipe - Outside (wall)

Models are available with sensing elements
T7412 : ROOM TEMP. SENSOR (PT1000/NTC 20k)

- PT1000 - NTC20K - BALCO500.


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Humidity Sensors

Polymer Capacitive Humidity Element

- Capacitance relative to dielectric gap - Humidity changes gap distance - Signal proportionate to humidity

Combined Relative Humidity and Temperature Sensors are available.


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AHU Humidity Controls

Humidity - Jet spray - Steam

Cooling coil used to reduce the moisture content. Reheat coil will bring the supply air to the required temperature.

Differential Pressure Switch

Differential Pressure switches are used for monitoring the status of

Filters Fans Pumps Water Flow Air Flow



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Differential Pressure Sensors

Can measure differential pressure, absolute pressure and vacuum.

Used for measuring water and air flow.

ST 3000 Pressure Transmitter

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CO2 Sensor


CO2 measurement range 0...3000 ppm corresponding to 0...0.3% CO2 State-of-the-art Non-Dispersion-Infrared (NDIR) technology to measure carbon dioxide gas.

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Centralised air systems

Centralised systems are often based around an air handling unit (AHU), which typically contains heating and cooling coils, a humidifier, filter and a fan to move the air. The incoming air is drawn into the AHU and passed over the coils to heat or cool the air as required. This conditioned air is then supplied by ductwork to the rooms within the building. The equipment is normally located in central plant rooms but may be roof-mounted. Refrigeration equipment provides chilled water for the cooling coil(s) within the AHU. The chiller may be water cooled, which will involve a cooling tower or cooled by outside air. Hot water for the heating coils is provided by boilers, which may be located in another plant room.
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HVAC system symbols

Cooling Battery Filter

Heating Battery Valves Pump Fan



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see page 296 of controls manual for more

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Fresh air system

100% fresh air system.

Used to supply air to Kitchen, Operating theatre, Toilet etc.

Damper to stop air movement when the fan is not running.

Filter to protect heater battery from dirt particles.

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Mixed air system

Exhaust Air Extract or Return Air

Re-circ Air

Fresh or Outside Air

Mixed Air

Supply or Discharge Air

Air is re-circulated as a heat recovery mechanism.

Minimum fresh air requirement is about 10% by volume.

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Air Handling Units

Building Environment
Joe cool
OA RA EA Air Handling Unit Hot water system Chilled water system Fan Htg & Clg Coils supply air distribution system



Cooling Tower

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