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Lecture 5

Motivational Process

WHAT IS MOTIVATION

Performance of an individual depends on his or her ability backed by motivation: The principle of motivation is :

Performance = f ( ability * motivation)

Ability- Skill and Competency Motivation- Your desire


Motivation is goal directed.

NEED SATISFACTION PROCESS

Need Deficiency Search for Potential NeedSatisfying Goal

Goal Attainment or Frustration

Attempt to Attain Goal

Perception of Potential NeedSatisfying Goal 3

MORALE
It is a mental condition or attitude which determines individuals/ groups willingness to co-operate.
Factors effecting morale: - The job - The supervisor - The company - The working conditions - The policies

NEED THEORIES OF MOTIVATION


Maslows Need Hierarchy
McGregors Theory X and Theory Y Alderfers ERG Theory

Herzbergs Two-factor Theory


McClelland Three Motives

PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

Vrooms Expectancy Model Adam Equity theory

Goal Setting Theory

Maslows Need Hierarchy Theory


Higher-order needs Selfactualization needs Esteem needs Social needs Safety needs Physiological needs Lower-order needs

Need Hierarchy and Organizational Aspects


Needs 1. Self-actualization need Organisational Aspects 1. Job challenge, performance, advancement, creativity, growth, training, self-image. 2. Status, responsibilities, recognition 3. Cohesive and supportive coworkers, teams, 0ther work groups, supervisors, subordinates, customers etc 4. Work safety, job security, health insurance 5. Work place conditions (air, water, temperature), base salary

1. Ego needs
2. Love needs

3. Safety Needs 4. Physiological needs

McGregors Theory X and Theory Y

Alderfer's ERG Theory An extension of Maslow's theory


Maslow
Self-Actualization Ego-Needs Love-Needs Safety-Needs Existence

Alderfer
Growth Relatedness

Physiological needs

HERZBERGS TWO-FACTOR THEORY


Hygiene Factors
Salary Working conditions Company policies Supervision

Motivational Factors
Advancement Personal development Responsibility Recognition

Work group Job security

Achievement Job interest

McClellands three Motives


Need for Achievement (nAch) Desire to succeed

Need for Affiliation (nAff) Desire for satisfying relationships


Need for Power (nPow) Desire to influence and control others

Need Theories of Motivation


Maslows Needs Hierarchy SelfActualization Ego needs Love needs Relatedness Hygiene Factors Theory X Alderfers ERG Theory Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory Motivators McGregors Theory X and Theory Y Theory Y McClellands Three Needs

Growth

Need for Achievement Need for Power Need for Affiliation

Ego needs Physiological Existence Needs

Expectancy Theory (Vroom)

Individual Effort

Individual Performance

Organisational Rewards

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1. Effort-Performance relationship = Expectancy 2. Performance-Rewards rel. = Instrumentality Personal Goals

3. Rewards-Personal goals relationship = Valence

Chapter 6

Expectancy Theory (Vroom)

Expectancy
(how well the person believes he or she can perform the task)

Instrumentality
(how well the person believes that performance will lead to certain outcomes)

Valence
(the value that the person attaches to the outcome)

Motivational Force

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Expectancy Model of Motivation

Effort Effort
Perceived effort performance probability
If I work hard, will I get the job done?

Performance
Perceived performance reward probability
What rewards will I get when the job is well done?

Reward
Perceived value of reward
What rewards do I value?

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GOAL SETTING THEORY


Goal-Setting Theory The theory says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead

to higher performance
Specific hard goals produces a higher level of output than does the generalized goals.

More difficult the goal is higher the level of performance


People do well when they get feedback on how well they are progressing towards their goals. Employees perform better if they get to participate in their goal setting

GOAL SETTING THEORY


Three factors that have found to influence the goals:

Performance relationship
Goal commitment

Adequate self-efficacy

THE EQUITY THEORY COMPARISON

OUTCOMES
INPUTS

PERSON

OUTCOMES

REFERENT OTHER

??
PERSON

INPUTS

REFERENT OTHER

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FIGURE 76

MOTIVATIONAL THEORY OF SOCIAL EXCANGE


Person Equity Negative Inequity Comparison other Outcomes = Outcomes Inputs Inputs Outcomes < Outcomes Inputs Inputs

Positive Inequity

Outcomes > Outcomes Inputs Inputs


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EQUITY THEORY
Responses to a perceived state of inequity:
Alter inputs of the person Alter outcomes of the person Alter inputs of the referent other Alter outcomes of the referent other Distort perceptions of inputs or outcomes Choose a different referent other Leave the situation

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How People Choose From Among Ways to Reduce Inequity


People will first try to maximize valued outcomes. People will be reluctant to increase inputs that are difficult or costly to change. People will be more resistant to changing perceptions of their own inputs and outcomes than to changing perceptions of their comparison others inputs and outcomes. People will leave the situation only when inequity is great and other means of reducing it are not available. People will be reluctant to change their comparison others.

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