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# Earthing fault localization

telephone wires. is known as a test set. and with the special connections required for these loop tests.Earthing fault localization The portable Wheatstone bridge is often used to locate faults in multicore cables. entirely self-contained with batteries and a pointer-type galvanometer. The best known and simplest of the various loop tests is called Murray-loop test. A commercial Wheatstone bridge. The test setup is shown in Fig. This test is used in particular to find the location of short circuits or low-resistance faults between a conductor and ground. or power transmission lines by means of Murray-loop. principally used to locate ground faults in sheathed cables. .

Earthing fault localization .

Murray Loop Test The Murray loop test is the most common and accurate method of locating faults. then the fault resistance may be of the order of 10 kΩ.. if the battery voltage is 100 volts.g. In its simplest form. e. . the faulty conductor is looped to a sound conductor of the same cross-sectional area and a slide wire of resistance box with two sets of coil are connected across the open ends of the loop. It can precisely locate the fault if the fault current is more than 10mA.

The fault position is given by the formula: . Balance is obtained by adjusting the slide or resistance.Murray Loop Test A galvanometer is also joined across the open end of the loop and a battery or a dc hand generator supplies the current for the test.

2l = loop length . lx = distance to fault b = length of bridge arm joined to the faulty core a = length of bridge arm joined to the sound core and loop length is equal to twice the rout length.Murray Loop Test where.

Murray Loop Test NOTE: In case of high resistance fault. . either the battery should be substituted by a high voltage dc supply obtained through a rectified set or the galvanometer should be replaced by a sensitive electronic detector.

Earthing fault localization At Balance condition or Where RL is the total resistance of the loop (faulty conductor plus return conductor) and Rx is the resistance of the faulty conductor from the bridge terminal to the location of the ground fault. .

we can substitute length for resistance and write In a multicore cable the return conductor l1 has the same length and the same cross section as the faulty core. so that l1 =l2 = l and therefore .Earthing fault localization Since the wire resistance is proportional to the length and the cross sectional area of the conductor.

Earthing fault localization where l is the length of the multicore cable from the bridge terminals to the point of termination. .