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Geography revision

Orographic/relief Convectional Frontal

Hydrological cycle • • • • • • Evaporation Transport Condensation Precipitation Groundwater Run-off .

formed by hills etc.Watershed • Boundary of the drainage basin. a ring a round the drainage basin (catchment area) .

suspended and bed.Rivers • Load – 3 types dissolved. • Discharge – volume of water that travels through in a given time. All material carried in river. • Starts at source • Branch – Tributary • Mouth – Where it flows out • Confluence – where 2 rivers join .

• LOOK IN BOOK AT UPPER MIDDLE AND LOWER COURSE OF RIVERS .

River erosion • • • • Abrasion/corrasion Hydraulic action Attrition Solution .

dissolved in river .River transport • • • • Traction – rolling over bed Saltation – bouncing over bed Suspension – carried along river Solution.

• Vertical .Deeper than is wide causing bed 2 erode • Lateral – one side erodes • Headward – Backwards erosion .

fastest & deepest is outside .• Interlocking spurs – Ridges because river chooses easiest way through upper course • Point bar – depositional feature of streams • On a meander.

• Alluvail deposits – sediment that has been dropped as river slows down etc • Levee – bank alongside top of river .

dams. river engineering • Soft – Afforestation & managed flooding .River management • Hard engineering .

• Tombolo – Island attached to land by spit .

g towns) .g resources • Settlement situation – location relative to surroundings (e.• Settlement site – land which it is built (e.

convenience High order goods.• • • • • Dispersed settlement – poor soil etc Low order goods – bread etc. shopping goods Hinterland – area just behind coast Zone of transition – between factory zone and working class zone . tvs etc.

Concentric ring model Order (from outside) (its a circle with 5 rings) Commuter zone Residential zone Working class zone Zone of transition Factory zone CBD .

Sector model .

Multiple nuclei model .

possibility of re-use .• Urbanisation – physical growth of urban areas. • Millionaire cities – 10 mill+ inhabitants • Gentrification – rich buying houses in bad places • Dormitory village – commuters • Brown field site – abandoned industrial facilities. increasing proportion of population in cities.

improvements in communications • Greenfield – development on new land • Doughnut effect – movement of retail etc from cbd to rural urban fringe (outskirts) • Greenbelts – undeveloped green areas in cities . shops. push factors = high land values. hotels.• CBD – Offices. little housing etc • Counter urbanisation – migration away from urban areas. congestion.

• Footloose industry – can be set up anywhere. not effected by resources etc • Honeypot site – popular tourist destination .