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# Bernoulli’s Principle

Switzerland. 1782 in Basel. . won 10 prizes of the Paris Academy of Sciences. published in 1738. with Euler. It would be better for the true physics if there were no mathematicians on earth.Born of a family of leading mathematicians Spent most of his life dedicated to Basel University ‘Hydrodynamica’. was a milestone in the theory of the flowing behavior of liquids Died on March 17.

‽ Has zero viscosity (no resistance to motion) ‽ Incompressible (density remains constant) .

or in regular paths • velocity. wind • fluid travels smoothly blows gently. pressure. etc.‽ Laminar flow: • Occurs when waters flow smoothly. and other flow properties at each point in the fluid remain constant. .

irregular and unpredictable manner • Often occurs when it passes over obstacles. riverbanks. etc.‽ Turbulent flow: • Fluid travels in unsteady. creating whirlpools and eddies • E. : blood flow. .g.

The rate of flow into an area must equal the rate of flow out of an area. R1 =R2 A1v1= A2v2 .

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so: • Δm= ρV • Δm= ρAd(Velocity = Area * distance [A*d]) • Δm= ρAvΔt(distance = velocity * time [v*t]) Δm • =Av ρΔt Δm • R=Av (Let =R which is the flow rate) ρΔt .• ρ= m(formula for density) V • m= ρV(rearranging the equation) • We are talking about the fluid flowing in changing cross-sectional area.

The velocity of fluid is inversely proportional to its pressure 𝟏 V= 𝑷 Equation: P+ ρv2+ ρgh= constant 1 1 2 P1+ ρv1 + ρgh1 = P2 + ρv22+ ρgh2 2 2 .

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then: P + ½ρv2 = constant slower speed more pressure faster speed less pressure .P+ ρgy + ½ ρv2 = constant No change in height.

Bernoulli’s Principle is applicable to cases where: • Flow is laminar Substance referred to are fluids since they are incompressible. Law of Continuity holds true if: • .

AIRFOIL On top: greater air speed and less air pressure On bottom: less air speed and more air pressure .

less pressure net force: downward . more pressure greater air speed.Spoiler – airfoil reversed less air speed.

Racecar Spoiler provides better traction and avoids lift .

Curved Ball .

~ Work = Force x distance ~ Work = Energy = ΔK. grav .E.It is simply two equations of work equated to each other and applied to fluids but involves numerous process. + ΔP.E.

= 1 2 1 2 mΔv 2 = ρVΔv2 = ρV(v2 1 2 1 2 (m = ρV) V = Ad = AvΔt 2– v1 2) = ρRΔt(v22.grav ΔK. = ΔK. + ΔP.E.E.v12) V = RΔt .Wext.E.

E.E. = mgΔh = ρVg (h1 – h2) = ρRΔtg(h1 – h2) (m = ρV) V = Ad = AvΔt V = RΔt .Wext.grav ΔP. = ΔK. + ΔP.E.

v12)+ ρ(h1– h2)]RΔt . + ΔP.E.Wsurr= ΔK.v2)+ ρRΔt(h1 – h2) = 1 [ 2 ρ(v22 .grav = ρRΔt(v2 .E.

• Wsys = F * d = .ΔPRΔt = .ΔPAvΔt = .(P2 – P1)RΔt = (P1 – P2) RΔt .ΔPAd (Force = P * A) d = vΔt ‘-’ sign means work is done by system = .

Wsys= Wsurr 1 [ ρ(v22 2 v12)+ ρg(h1– h2)] RΔt = (P1 – P2)RΔt 1 2 1 2 ρ(v22 – v12)+ ρg(h2– h1) = (P1 – P2) ρv2 2– 1 2 ρv12+ ρgh2 – ρgh1= P1 – P2 1 P1+ ρv12+ 2 ρgh1= P2 + 1 ρv22+ 2 ρgh2 .

You may now blame Bernoulli for your umbrella misfortune. .

html • http://www.com/courses/honors/fluids/Bernoulli.ufrj.uoregon.com/courses/honors/fluids/continuity.slideshare.html • http://www.br/~coelho/Newman/Newman08.aplusphysics.com/physics/fluids/fluids-in-motion/flowrate-and-the-equation-of-continuity/ • http://www.net/vyvianleow/bernoullis-principle-22117891 .html • https://www.if.pdf • http://www.Sources: • http://abyss.boundless.aplusphysics.edu/~js/glossary/laminar_flow.