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Transmission line parameter. References. Application. Electric power. Electrical load. Newton-Raphson method. Power flow analysis. Objective of study. Regulating transformer. .          Overview of power system.

.C. Primary distribution systemA. distribution system which operates a voltage somewhat higher than general utilization i. 22 kV.6 kV and 2. 6.e.Basic distribution system:1. 3-wire system.2 kV. primary distribution is carried out by 3-phase.

.C.2. distribution system that includes the range of voltages at 400/230 V. 3-phase. 4-wire system. Secondary distribution systemA. The voltage between any two phases in 400 V and between any phase and neutral is 230 V.

transmission and distribution networks and loads.Figure: Typical AC power supply system:Electrical ac power systems consist of three-phase generation systems. .

The units for power are generally watts (W). . For example. the watt rating of an appliance gives the rate at which it uses energy.Power is a measure of energy per unit time. Power therefore gives the rate of energy consumption or production.

by which we mean a network of generators. transmission lines and loads that could represent an area as small as a municipality or as large as several states. .Power flow analysis is concerned with describing the operating state of an entire power system.

What happens to the state of the system if we do such-and-such? This question may be posed in the context of eitherday-to-day operations or longer-term planning. as it answers the basic question.Power flow analysis is a fundamental and essential tool for operating a power system. .

.Regulating transformers also known As booster transformer. are used To change the voltage magnitude and Phase angle at an intermediate point In a line rather than at the ends as with Tap-changing transformers.

the term load therefore has attributes beyond impedance that relate to aggregate behavior. such as the timing of demand.e. In the language of electric utilities.. .The term load refers to any device in which power is being dissipated (i. consumed).

.Representation of composite loads by a constant-current consuming device where the real and reactive powers are proportional to the voltage (V) gives a good approximation to practical conditions. referred as voltage Sensitive load.

. 20 % Other ingredients.Induction motors. 20 %. 60 % Synchronous motors.

.The transmission line parameters serve to relate the voltage and current at one port to voltage and current at the other port.

It is a powerful technique for solving equations numerically. it is based on the simple idea of linear approximation. .The Newton-Raphson technique converge a very fast for long as well as small system. it therefore becomes very popular for large system studies. Like so much of the deferential calculus.

Newton-Raphson flow chart .

The effects of constant power load as well as voltage sensitive constant current and constant impedance loads are also considered.The main aim is “To study the effects of the magnitude and the phase of the complex transformation ratio of a regulating transformer in one of two parallel transmission lines on the power flows is investigated.” .

.In order to improve the voltage stability. tap changing transformer is known that have ability to control the voltage in transmission system within the limit. This method also identifies critical load tap changing transformers to be made manual under peak load conditions to prevent possible voltage instability.

Elgerd. “Electric Energy Systems Theory” (McGraw-Hill. • “Electrical power system” by D. 1971). New York. • “Effects of Tap Changing Transformer and Shunt Capacitor on Voltage Stability Enhancement of Transmission Networks by Pyone Lai Swe. • “Continuous Newton’s Method for Power Flow Analysis” by Federico Milano. IEEE. I. • .O. Member. Das. • “power flow control by use of phase-shifting transformer” by Jozef rusnák. Wanna Swe and Kyaw Myo Lin.