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1.Keeps the structure in static and dynamic equilibrium Transfers the load to contiguous structural components . compressive).Unsafe due to unexpected design scenario or shall we say unwise design Structural Design Principles .1 INTRODUCTION • 1.1 INTRODUCTION • What is a structure? .How to determine? Strip it down to its basic skeleton What does a structure do? .Unserviceable .General Types: Based on deformation and type of primary load carried [Axial (tensile. seismic). wind.Collapse or failure . wave.Transfers the load safely .Load Factors 3 • • • .Superposition Principle .How does a structure become unsafe? . flexure.Transfers the loads to the foundation How do you assess the safe performance of a structure? . combinations of various types . shear and torsion].Carries the load .Loads acting on the structure: Dead & Live (people. equipment.

2a The human skeleton is a structure which maintains the shape of the body.Various components carry different types of loads Figure 1. keeps the various organs and muscles in the right place and transmits loads down to the ground 4 .

The weight of the spider and its prey is supported by tensile strength of the web 5 .2b The spider’s web is a good example of a tension structure.Figure 1.

when they are loaded. The material of the bough is stretched near its upper surface and compressed or contracted near its lower surface by the weight of the monkey 6 .Fig.4 Figures 4 and 5 • • • Fig. to greatly varying extents.5 All materials and structures deflect. The science of elasticity is about the interactions between forces and deflections.

1 • A building structure safely transmits loads down to Earth 7 .Figure 1.

etc. (Roof blown off or beam collapsing).Loads due to extreme environmental loads (acting.1 INTRODUCTION (Cont’d) • Collapse or failure under applied extreme loads . • Unserviceability: Excessive deformation. Improper anchorage of roof. Lack of sufficient indeterminacy (collapse) 8 . foundation settlement and failure. earthquake. yielding). reinforcement. Inadequate sealing and paint protection (leakage and corrosion). acoustic deformation • Unexpected load scenario or unwise design: Lack of or faulty sprinkler (fire damage). Buckling (elastic or inelastic).1. wind) .Modes of failure: Plastic deformation (ductile. Vibration (resonance). Fatigue. Brittle fracture.

1. • Humbley’s problem: Stool with three or four legs on irregular floor • Indeterminate structures: Less equations are available than the number of unknown forces that constrain the body in space.Stable and unstable structures • Unstable: When more equations are available than the number of forces that constrain the body in space. which will indicate the degree of indeterminacy • Determinacy and indeterminacy . then the structure is unstable 9 . DETERMINACY AND INDETERMINACY • What do we understand by determinate and indeterminate structures? Determinate: Forces and Moments are determined by statical equations of equilibrium F  0. Extra conditions of deformation compatibility have to be introduced to solve the problem.2. M  0. These conditions will give the extra number of equations required to solve the problem.

j = number of joints and r = number of external constrains. .Framed structures: 2-D. 3-D.Truss structures: 2-D. 3-D • Two-dimensional truss structures: m + r  2j. where m = number of members. 10 .3 ASSESSING THE DEGREE OF INDETERMINACY • Easy to deal with by specifying simple types of structures .1.

j = number of joints. where m = number of members.1. and r = number of external constraints 11 .3 ASSESSING THE DEGREE OF INDETERMINACY (Cont’d) • Three dimensional truss structure: m + r  3j.

1.3 ASSESSING THE DEGREE OF INDETERMINACY Two-dimensional framed structure: 3m + r  3j +ec (Cont’d) 12 .

1.3 ASSESSING THE DEGREE OF INDETERMINACY (Cont’d) • Three-dimensional framed structure: 6m + r  6j +ec 13 .