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# 2.

1d Mechanics

Work, energy and power
Breithaupt pages 148 to 159

April 14th, 2012

AQA AS Specification
Lessons 1&2 Work, energy and power W = Fs cos θ P = ΔW / Δt P = Fv Conservation of energy Principle of conservation of energy, applied to examples involving gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy and work done against resistive forces. ΔEp = mgΔh Ek = ½ mv2 Topics

3&4

Work (W)
Work is done when a force moves its point of application.
work = force x distance moved in the direction of the force W= Fs unit: joule (J) work is a scalar quantity

If the direction of the force and the distance moved are not in the same direction:
F
object

θ
s

W = F s cos θ
The point of application of force, F moves distance s cos θ when the object moves through the distance s.

Question 1
Calculate the work done when a force of 5 kN moves through a distance of 30 cm work = force x distance = 5 kN x 30 cm = 5000 N x 0.30 m work = 1500 J

Question 2
Calculate the work done by a child of weight 300N who climbs up a set of stairs consisting of 12 steps each of height 20cm. work = force x distance the child must exert an upward force equal to its weight the distance moved upwards equals (12 x 20cm) = 2.4m work = 300 N x 2.4 m work = 720 J

Question 3
Calculate the work done by the wind on the yacht in the situation shown below:
distance moved by yacht = 50 m 30°
wind force = 800 N

W = F s cos θ = 800 N x 50 m x cos 30° = 40 000 x cos 30° = 40 000 x 0.8660 work = 34 600 J

Force Distance
Angle between F and s

Work

400 N 400 N 200 μN 50 N 400 N

5 km 300 m 300 m 6m 3m

0° 0°

2 MJ 60 mJ 150 J J* 00J

60° °
90°

* Note: No work is done when the force and distance are perpendicular to each other.

Force-distance graphs
The area under the curve is equal to the work done.
force
F force
area = work done

force F area = work =½Fs

distance

s

F s s

area = work found by counting squares on the graph distance

distance

Question
Calculate the work done by the brakes of a car if the force exerted by the brakes varies over the car’s braking distance of 100 m as shown in the graph below.
force / kN 2 1 area B 50 100 distance / m area A

Work = area under graph

= area A + area B
= (½ x 1k x 50) + (1k x 100) = (25k) + (100k) work = 125 kJ

Energy (E)
Energy is needed to move objects, to change their shape or to warm them up. Work is a measurement of the energy required to do a particular task. work done = energy change

unit: joule (J)

Conservation of Energy
The principle of the conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed.

Energy can change from one form to another. All forms of energy are scalar quantities

Some examples of forms of energy
Kinetic energy (KE)
Energy due to a body’s motion.

Nuclear energy
Energy associated with nuclear reactions.

Potential energy (PE)
Energy due to a body’s position

Electrical energy
Energy associated with electric charges.

Thermal energy
Energy due to a body’s temperature.

Elastic energy
Energy stored in an object when it is stretched or compressed.

Chemical energy
Energy associated with chemical reactions.

All of the above forms of energy (and others) can ultimately be considered to be variations of kinetic or potential energy.

Kinetic Energy (EK)
Kinetic energy is the energy an object has because of its motion and mass. kinetic energy = ½ x mass x (speed)2 EK = ½ m v2 Note: v = speed NOT velocity. The direction of motion has no relevance to kinetic energy.

Question 1
Calculate the kinetic energy of a car of mass 800 kg moving at 6 ms-1 EK = ½ m v2 = ½ x 800kg x (6ms-1)2 = ½ x 800 x 36 = 400 x 36 kinetic energy = 14 400 J

Question 2
Calculate the speed of a car of mass 1200kg if its kinetic energy is 15 000J EK = ½ m v2 15 000J = ½ x 1200kg x v2 15 000 = 600 x v2 15 000 ÷ 600 = v2 25 = v2 v = 25 speed = 5.0 ms-1

Question 3
Calculate the braking distance a car of mass 900 kg travelling at an initial speed of 20 ms-1 if its brakes exert a constant force of 3 kN. k.e. of car = ½ m v2 = ½ x 900kg x (20ms-1)2 = ½ x 900 x 400 = 450 x 400 k.e. = 180 000 J The work done by the brakes will be equal to this kinetic energy. W=Fs 180 000 J = 3 kN x s 180 000 = 3000 x s s = 180 000 / 3000

braking distance = 60 m

Mass Speed Kinetic energy

400 g

4.0 ms-1

3.2 J 3.2 J

3000 kg

10 kms-1
300 cms-1
-1 12 ms ms-1

1.560 x mJ 1011 J
36 J 3.6 mJ

8 kg kg
50 mg

Gravitational Potential Energy (gpe)
Gravitational potential energy is the energy an object has because of its position in a gravitational field. change in g.p.e. = mass x gravitational field strength x change in height

ΔEP = m g Δh

Question
Calculate the change in g.p.e. when a mass of 200 g is lifted upwards by 30 cm. (g = 9.8 Nkg-1) ΔEP = m g Δh = 200 g x 9.8 Nkg-1 x 30 cm = 0.200 kg x 9.8 Nkg-1 x 0.30 m change in g.p.e. = 0.59 J

mass 3 kg kg 3 200 g 7 kg 2000 g g 10 Nkg-1
-1 1.6 Nkg 1.6 Nkg-1

Δh 400 cm 30 m 4000 m 4000 m 3000 mm

ΔEP 120 J 9.6 J 280 kJ 144 J 144 J

10 Nkg-1 24 Nkg-1

Falling objects
If there is no significant air resistance then the initial GPE of an object is transferred into kinetic energy.
ΔEK = ΔEP ½ m v2 = m g Δh
m Δh v1 gpe = ke gpe = ½ mgΔh ke = ½ mv12 gpe = 0 ke = ½ mv22 ke = mgΔh gpe = mgΔh ke = 0

½ Δh
v2

Question
A child of mass 40 kg climbs up a wall of height 2.0 m and then steps off. Assuming no significant air resistance calculate the maximum: (a) gpe of the child (b) speed of the child g = 9.8 Nkg-1 (a) max gpe occurs when the child is on the wall gpe = mgΔh = 40 x 9.8 x 2.0 max gpe = 784 J (b) max speed occurs when the child reaches the ground ½ m v2 = m g Δh ½ m v2 = 784 J v2 = (2 x 784) / 40 v2 = 39.2 v = 39.2 max speed = 6.3 ms-1

Power (P)
Power is the rate of transfer of energy.
power = energy transfer time P = ΔE Δt unit: watt (W) power is a scalar quantity

Power is also the rate of doing work.

power = work done time P = ΔW Δt

Question 1
Calculate the power of an electric motor that lifts a mass of 50 kg upwards by 3.0 m in 20 seconds. g = 9.8 Nkg-1 ΔEP = m g Δh = 50 kg x 9.8 Nkg-1 x 3 m = 1470 J P = ΔE / Δt = 1470 J / 20 s power = 74 W

Question 2
Calculate the power of a car engine that exerts a force of 40 kN over a distance of 20 m for 10 seconds. W=Fs = 40 kN x 20 m = 40 000 x 20 m = 800 000 J P = ΔW / Δt = 800 000 J / 10 s power = 80 000 W

energy transfer 600 J 440 J 28 800 28 800JJ 2.5 mJ 2.5 mJ work done 600 J 600 J 440 J 440 J 28 800 800 J 28 J 2.5 mJ time 2 mins power 5W 5 22 W 4W 50 W W 50

20 s s
2 hours 50 μs

Power and velocity
power = work done / time but: work = force x displacement therefore: power = force x displacement time but: displacement / time = velocity therefore: power = force x velocity P=Fv

Question
Calculate the power of a car that maintains a constant speed of 30 ms-1 against air resistance forces of 2 kN As the car is travelling at a constant speed the car’s engine must be exerting a force equal to the opposing air resistance forces.

P=Fv = 2 kN x 30 ms-1 = 2 000 N x 30 ms-1 power = 60 kW

Energy efficiency
Energy efficiency is a measure of how usefully energy is used by a device.
efficiency =
useful energy transferred by the device

total energy supplied to the device As the useful energy can never be greater than the energy supplied the maximum efficiency possible is 1.0

Also:
efficiency = useful work output energy supplied

efficiency =

useful power output power input

In all cases:
percentage efficiency = efficiency x 100

Input energy (J) Useful energy (J) Wasted energy (J) Efficiency Percentage efficiency

100
250

40
200

60 50

0.40
0.80

40%
80%

50
80 120

10
24 60

40
56 60

0.20
0.30 0.50

20%
30% 50%

• • • • • • Reaction time stopping a car - also plots velocity/time graph - NTNU Car Accident & Reaction Time - NTNU Work (GCSE) - Powerpoint presentation by KT Kinetic Energy (GCSE) - Powerpoint presentation by KT Gravitational Potential Energy (GCSE) - Powerpoint presentation by KT Energy Skate Park - Colorado - Learn about conservation of energy with a skater dude! Build tracks, ramps and jumps for the skater and view the kinetic energy, potential energy and friction as he moves. You can also take the skater to different planets or even space! • Rollercoaster Demo - Funderstanding • Energy conservation with falling particles - NTNU • Ball rolling up a slope- NTNU

Core Notes from Breithaupt pages 148 to 159
1.
2.

3.

4.

What is the principle of conservation of energy? Define work and give its unit. Explain how work is calculated when force and distance are not in the same direction. With the aid of a diagram explain how work can be found from a graph. Explain what is meant by, and give equations for (a) kinetic energy & (b) gravitational potential energy.

5. In terms of energy explain what happens as a body falls under gravity. 6. In terms of energy and work define power. 7. Show that the power of an engine is given by: P = Fv.

Notes from Breithaupt pages 148 to 150 Work and energy
1. What is the principle of conservation of energy? 2. Define work and give its unit. Explain how work is calculated when force and distance are not in the same direction. 3. With the aid of a diagram explain how work can be found from a graph. 4. Try the summary questions on page 150

Notes from Breithaupt pages 151 & 152 Kinetic and potential energy
1. Explain what is meant by, and give equations for (a) kinetic energy & (b) gravitational potential energy. 2. In terms of energy explain what happens as a body falls under gravity. 3. Repeat the worked example on page 152 this time where the track drops vertically 70 m and the train has a mass of 3000 kg. 4. Try the summary questions on page 152

Notes from Breithaupt pages 153 & 154 Power
1. In terms of energy and work define power. 2. Show that the power of an engine is given by: P = Fv.

3. Repeat the worked example on page 154 this time where the engine exerts a force of 50 kN with a constant velocity of 100 ms-1. 4. Try the summary questions on page 154

Notes from Breithaupt pages 155 & 156 Energy and efficiency
1. Try the summary questions on page 156

Notes from Breithaupt pages 157 to 159 Renewable energy
1. Try the summary questions on page 159