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Distance (x) and Displacement (s)

Distance (x)
the length of the path moved by an object scalar quantity SI unit: metre (m)

Displacement (s)
the length and direction of the straight line drawn from objects initial position to its final position vector quantity SI unit: metre (m)

Speed (v)
average speed = distance change time taken

vav = x / t
scalar quantity SI unit: ms -1 Instantaneous speed (v) is the rate of change of distance with time: v = dx / dt

Velocity (v)
average velocity = displacement change time taken

vav = s / t
vector quantity direction: same as the displacement change SI unit: ms -1

Speed and Velocity Conversions

1 kilometre per hour (km h-1) = 1000 m h-1 = 1000 / 3600 ms-1 1 km h-1 = 0.28 ms-1 and 1 ms-1 = 3.6 km h-1
Also: 100 km h-1 = 28 ms-1 = approx 63 m.p.h

Complete
distance
60 m 1400 m

time
3s 35 s

speed
20 ms-1 40 ms-1

300 m
80 km 150 x 10 6 km 1 km

0.20 s
2h 8 min 20 s 3.03 s

1500 ms-1
40 km h-1 3.0 x 108 ms-1 330 ms-1

Speed and Velocity Question

Two cars (A and B) travel from Chertsey to Weybridge by the routes shown opposite. If both cars take 30 minutes to complete their journeys calculate their individual average speeds and velocities.
car A: distance = 6km

Chertsey

Weybridge

car B: distance = 4km

Acceleration (a)
average acceleration = velocity change time taken

aav = v / t
vector quantity direction: same as the velocity change SI unit: ms -2 Instantaneous acceleration (a) is the rate of change of velocity with time: a = dv / dt

Notes: 1. Change in velocity: = final velocity (v) initial velocity (u) so: aav = (v u) / t 2. Uniform acceleration: This is where the acceleration remains constant over a period of time. 3. Deceleration: This is where the magnitude of the velocity is decreasing with time.

Acceleration due to gravity (g)

An example of uniform acceleration. In equations a is substituted by g

On average at sea level: g = 9.81 ms-2 downwards

g is often approximated to 10 ms -2 YOU ARE EXPECTED TO USE 9.81 IN EXAMINATIONS!!

Question
Calculate the average acceleration of a car that moves from rest (0 ms-1) to 30 ms-1 over a time of 8 seconds. aav = (v u) / t = (30 0) / 8 average acceleration = 3.75 ms-2

Complete
Velocity / ms-1 Initial 0 Final 45 Time /s 15 Acceleration / ms-2 3

0
30 20 0

24
90 5 - 60

3
10 3 20

8
6 -5 -3

Distance-time graphs
The gradient of a distance-time graph is equal to the speed

Displacement-time graphs
The gradient of a displacement-time graph is equal to the velocity The graph opposite shows how the displacement of an object thrown upwards varies in time. Note how the gradient falls from a high positive value to zero (at maximum height) to a large negative value.
Estimate the initial velocity of the object. Initial gradient = (5 0)m / (0.5 0)s = 10 ms-1 Initial velocity = 10 ms-1

Question
Describe the motion shown by the displacement-time graph below:
s/m C D E

A t/s

Velocity-time graphs
velocity

With velocity-time graphs:

gradient = acceleration a = (v u) / t The area under the curve = displacement s = [u x t] + [ (v u) x t]

Question 1
Describe the motion shown by the velocity-time graph below:
v / ms-1 v1 A B

C v2

t/s F

Question 2
v / ms-1 12

T 4 6

t/s
11

-10

The graph shows the velocitytime graph of a car. Calculate or state: (a) the acceleration of the car during the first 4 seconds. (b) the displacement of the car after 6 seconds. (c) time T. (d) the displacement after 11 seconds. (e) the average velocity of the car over 11 seconds.

Question 3
Sketch the displacement-time graph for the car of question 2.

Question 4
Sketch displacement and velocity time graphs for a bouncing ball. Take the initial displacement of the ball to be h at time t = 0. Use the same time axis for both curves and show at least three bounces.

The equations of uniform acceleration

v = FINAL velocity u = INITIAL velocity a = acceleration t = time for the velocity change s = displacement during the velocity change

v = u + at v2 = u2 + 2as s = (u + v) t s = ut + at2

THESE EQUATIONS ONLY APPLY WHEN THE ACCELERATION REMAINS CONSTANT

Question 1
Calculate the final velocity of a car that accelerates at 2ms -2 from an initial velocity of 3ms -1 for 5 seconds.

v = u + at v = 3 + (2 x 5)
= 3 + 10 final velocity = 13 ms-1

Question 2
Calculate the stopping distance of a car that is decelerated at 2.5 ms -2 from an initial velocity of 20 ms -1.

v2 = u2 + 2as
0 = 202 + (2 x - 2.5 x s) 0 = 400 + - 5s - 400 = - 5s - 400 / - 5 = s stopping distance = 80 m

Question 3
A stone is dropped from the edge of a cliff. If it accelerates downwards at 9.81 ms -2 and reaches the bottom after 1.5s calculate the height of the cliff.

s = ut + at2 s = (0 x 1.5) + (9.81 x (1.5)2) s = (9.81 x 2.25)

cliff height = 11.0 m

Question 4
Calculate the time taken for a car to accelerate uniformly from 5 ms -1 to 12 ms -1 over a distance of 30m.

s = (u + v) t
30 = (5 + 12) x t 30 = 8.5 x t 30 8.5 = t time = 3.53 s

Question 5
A ball is thrown upwards against gravity with an initial speed of 8 ms -1. What is the maximum height reached by the ball?

v2 = u2 + 2as
where: s = height upwards u = 8 ms -1 upwards v = 0 ms -1 (at maximum height) a = - 9.81 ms -2 (acceleration is downwards)

Calculate the ? quantities

u / ms-1 v / ms-1 a / ms-2 t/s s/m

2
0

14

0.75
0.4

?
15 ?

16
4

0
6

-8
?

?
20

Calculate the other quantities

u / ms-1 v / ms-1 a / ms-2 t/s s/m

2
0

14
6

0.75
0.4 15

128

16
4

0
6

-8
0.5

2
20

Projectile motion
This is where a body is moving in two dimensions. For example a stone being thrown across a stretch of water has both horizontal and vertical motion. The motion of the body in two such mutually perpendicular directions can be treated independently.

Example 1
A stone is thrown horizontally at a speed of 8.0 ms-1 from the top of a vertical cliff. If the stone falls vertically by 30m calculate the time taken for the stone to reach the bottom of the cliff and the horizontal distance travelled by the stone (called the range). Neglect the effect of air resistance.
height of fall

path of stone

range

Example 1
Stage 1 Consider vertical motion only s = ut + at2 30 = (0 x t) + (9.81 x (t)2) 30 = (9.81 x (t)2) 30 = 4.905 x t2 t2 = 6.116 time of fall = 2.47 s
range height of fall

path of stone

Example 1
Stage 2
Consider horizontal motion only During the time 2.47 seconds the stone moves horizontally at a constant speed of 8.0 ms-1 speed = distance / time becomes: distance = speed x time = 8.0 x 2.47 = 19.8 range = 19.8 m
range height of fall

path of stone

Further Questions
(a) Repeat this example this time for a cliff of height 40m with a stone thrown horizontally at 20 ms-1. time of fall = 2.83 s range = 56.6 m (b) How would these values be changed if air resistance was significant? time of fall - longer range - smaller
height of fall

path of stone

range

Example 2
A shell is fired at 200 ms-1 at an angle of 30 degrees to the horizontal. Neglecting air resistance calculate: (a) the maximum height reached by the shell (b) the time of flight path of (c) the range
shell

30

maximum height

range

Example 2
Stage 1 - Part (a) Consider vertical motion only At the maximum height, s The final VERTICAL velocity, v = 0. v2 = u2 + 2as 0 = (200 sin 30)2 + (2 x - 9.81 x s) [upwards +ve] 0 = (200 x 0.500)2 + (-19.62 x s) 0 = (100)2 + (-19.62 x s) 0 = 10000 - 19.62s - 10000 = - 19.62s s = 10000 / 19.62 s = 509.7 maximum height = 510 m

Example 2
Stage 2 Part (b) Consider vertical motion only v = u + at 0 = (200 sin 30) + (- 9.81 x t) 0 = 100 - 9.81t -100 = - 9.81t t = 100 / 9.81 t = 10.19 Time to reach maximum height = 10.19 s If air resistance can be neglected then this is also the time for the shell to fall to the ground again. Hence time of flight = 2 x 10.19 time of flight = 20.4 seconds

Example 2
Stage 3 Part (c) Consider horizontal motion only During the time 20.38 seconds the shell moves horizontally at a constant speed of (200 cos 30) ms-1 speed = distance / time becomes: distance = speed x time = (200 cos 30) x 20.38 = (200 x 0.8660) x 20.38 = 173.2 x 20.38 = 3530 range = 3530 m (3.53 km)

Question
Repeat example 2 this time for a firing angle of 45. sin 45 = 0.7071; 200 x sin 45 = 141.4 maximum height = 1020 m time of flight = 28.8 s range = 4072 m (4.07 km) Note: 45 yields the maximum range in this situation.
path of shell

45

maximum height

range