Physics

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

4 views

Physics

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- 02 Lecture Slides
- Ch.1_Packet
- Acceleration due to Gravity
- SOAL FIS
- Suvat
- As 23b Optics
- Specialist Maths Sample
- Classical Mechanics (Cryogenics)
- As h 13b Directcurrentcircuits
- As h 12 Quantumphenomena
- Cinematica_Particula
- AS-H-23a-Waves
- As 22 Materials
- As h 11a Matter&Radiation
- Ch2 HW2 Solutions
- As h 13a Circuitcomponents
- Motion Along a Straight Line Spm 2003 - 2009
- As h 22 Materials
- as-h-23b-optics
- Polyaa

You are on page 1of 37

Distance (x)

the length of the path moved by an object scalar quantity SI unit: metre (m)

Displacement (s)

the length and direction of the straight line drawn from objects initial position to its final position vector quantity SI unit: metre (m)

Speed (v)

average speed = distance change time taken

vav = x / t

scalar quantity SI unit: ms -1 Instantaneous speed (v) is the rate of change of distance with time: v = dx / dt

Velocity (v)

average velocity = displacement change time taken

vav = s / t

vector quantity direction: same as the displacement change SI unit: ms -1

1 kilometre per hour (km h-1) = 1000 m h-1 = 1000 / 3600 ms-1 1 km h-1 = 0.28 ms-1 and 1 ms-1 = 3.6 km h-1

Also: 100 km h-1 = 28 ms-1 = approx 63 m.p.h

Complete

distance

60 m 1400 m

time

3s 35 s

speed

20 ms-1 40 ms-1

300 m

80 km 150 x 10 6 km 1 km

0.20 s

2h 8 min 20 s 3.03 s

1500 ms-1

40 km h-1 3.0 x 108 ms-1 330 ms-1

Two cars (A and B) travel from Chertsey to Weybridge by the routes shown opposite. If both cars take 30 minutes to complete their journeys calculate their individual average speeds and velocities.

car A: distance = 6km

Chertsey

Weybridge

Acceleration (a)

average acceleration = velocity change time taken

aav = v / t

vector quantity direction: same as the velocity change SI unit: ms -2 Instantaneous acceleration (a) is the rate of change of velocity with time: a = dv / dt

Notes: 1. Change in velocity: = final velocity (v) initial velocity (u) so: aav = (v u) / t 2. Uniform acceleration: This is where the acceleration remains constant over a period of time. 3. Deceleration: This is where the magnitude of the velocity is decreasing with time.

An example of uniform acceleration. In equations a is substituted by g

g is often approximated to 10 ms -2 YOU ARE EXPECTED TO USE 9.81 IN EXAMINATIONS!!

Question

Calculate the average acceleration of a car that moves from rest (0 ms-1) to 30 ms-1 over a time of 8 seconds. aav = (v u) / t = (30 0) / 8 average acceleration = 3.75 ms-2

Complete

Velocity / ms-1 Initial 0 Final 45 Time /s 15 Acceleration / ms-2 3

0

30 20 0

24

90 5 - 60

3

10 3 20

8

6 -5 -3

Distance-time graphs

The gradient of a distance-time graph is equal to the speed

Displacement-time graphs

The gradient of a displacement-time graph is equal to the velocity The graph opposite shows how the displacement of an object thrown upwards varies in time. Note how the gradient falls from a high positive value to zero (at maximum height) to a large negative value.

Estimate the initial velocity of the object. Initial gradient = (5 0)m / (0.5 0)s = 10 ms-1 Initial velocity = 10 ms-1

Question

Describe the motion shown by the displacement-time graph below:

s/m C D E

A t/s

Velocity-time graphs

velocity

gradient = acceleration a = (v u) / t The area under the curve = displacement s = [u x t] + [ (v u) x t]

Question 1

Describe the motion shown by the velocity-time graph below:

v / ms-1 v1 A B

C v2

t/s F

Question 2

v / ms-1 12

T 4 6

t/s

11

-10

The graph shows the velocitytime graph of a car. Calculate or state: (a) the acceleration of the car during the first 4 seconds. (b) the displacement of the car after 6 seconds. (c) time T. (d) the displacement after 11 seconds. (e) the average velocity of the car over 11 seconds.

Question 3

Sketch the displacement-time graph for the car of question 2.

Question 4

Sketch displacement and velocity time graphs for a bouncing ball. Take the initial displacement of the ball to be h at time t = 0. Use the same time axis for both curves and show at least three bounces.

v = FINAL velocity u = INITIAL velocity a = acceleration t = time for the velocity change s = displacement during the velocity change

v = u + at v2 = u2 + 2as s = (u + v) t s = ut + at2

Question 1

Calculate the final velocity of a car that accelerates at 2ms -2 from an initial velocity of 3ms -1 for 5 seconds.

v = u + at v = 3 + (2 x 5)

= 3 + 10 final velocity = 13 ms-1

Question 2

Calculate the stopping distance of a car that is decelerated at 2.5 ms -2 from an initial velocity of 20 ms -1.

v2 = u2 + 2as

0 = 202 + (2 x - 2.5 x s) 0 = 400 + - 5s - 400 = - 5s - 400 / - 5 = s stopping distance = 80 m

Question 3

A stone is dropped from the edge of a cliff. If it accelerates downwards at 9.81 ms -2 and reaches the bottom after 1.5s calculate the height of the cliff.

cliff height = 11.0 m

Question 4

Calculate the time taken for a car to accelerate uniformly from 5 ms -1 to 12 ms -1 over a distance of 30m.

s = (u + v) t

30 = (5 + 12) x t 30 = 8.5 x t 30 8.5 = t time = 3.53 s

Question 5

A ball is thrown upwards against gravity with an initial speed of 8 ms -1. What is the maximum height reached by the ball?

v2 = u2 + 2as

where: s = height upwards u = 8 ms -1 upwards v = 0 ms -1 (at maximum height) a = - 9.81 ms -2 (acceleration is downwards)

u / ms-1 v / ms-1 a / ms-2 t/s s/m

2

0

14

0.75

0.4

?

15 ?

16

4

0

6

-8

?

?

20

u / ms-1 v / ms-1 a / ms-2 t/s s/m

2

0

14

6

0.75

0.4 15

128

16

4

0

6

-8

0.5

2

20

Projectile motion

This is where a body is moving in two dimensions. For example a stone being thrown across a stretch of water has both horizontal and vertical motion. The motion of the body in two such mutually perpendicular directions can be treated independently.

Example 1

A stone is thrown horizontally at a speed of 8.0 ms-1 from the top of a vertical cliff. If the stone falls vertically by 30m calculate the time taken for the stone to reach the bottom of the cliff and the horizontal distance travelled by the stone (called the range). Neglect the effect of air resistance.

height of fall

path of stone

range

Example 1

Stage 1 Consider vertical motion only s = ut + at2 30 = (0 x t) + (9.81 x (t)2) 30 = (9.81 x (t)2) 30 = 4.905 x t2 t2 = 6.116 time of fall = 2.47 s

range height of fall

path of stone

Example 1

Stage 2

Consider horizontal motion only During the time 2.47 seconds the stone moves horizontally at a constant speed of 8.0 ms-1 speed = distance / time becomes: distance = speed x time = 8.0 x 2.47 = 19.8 range = 19.8 m

range height of fall

path of stone

Further Questions

(a) Repeat this example this time for a cliff of height 40m with a stone thrown horizontally at 20 ms-1. time of fall = 2.83 s range = 56.6 m (b) How would these values be changed if air resistance was significant? time of fall - longer range - smaller

height of fall

path of stone

range

Example 2

A shell is fired at 200 ms-1 at an angle of 30 degrees to the horizontal. Neglecting air resistance calculate: (a) the maximum height reached by the shell (b) the time of flight path of (c) the range

shell

30

maximum height

range

Example 2

Stage 1 - Part (a) Consider vertical motion only At the maximum height, s The final VERTICAL velocity, v = 0. v2 = u2 + 2as 0 = (200 sin 30)2 + (2 x - 9.81 x s) [upwards +ve] 0 = (200 x 0.500)2 + (-19.62 x s) 0 = (100)2 + (-19.62 x s) 0 = 10000 - 19.62s - 10000 = - 19.62s s = 10000 / 19.62 s = 509.7 maximum height = 510 m

Example 2

Stage 2 Part (b) Consider vertical motion only v = u + at 0 = (200 sin 30) + (- 9.81 x t) 0 = 100 - 9.81t -100 = - 9.81t t = 100 / 9.81 t = 10.19 Time to reach maximum height = 10.19 s If air resistance can be neglected then this is also the time for the shell to fall to the ground again. Hence time of flight = 2 x 10.19 time of flight = 20.4 seconds

Example 2

Stage 3 Part (c) Consider horizontal motion only During the time 20.38 seconds the shell moves horizontally at a constant speed of (200 cos 30) ms-1 speed = distance / time becomes: distance = speed x time = (200 cos 30) x 20.38 = (200 x 0.8660) x 20.38 = 173.2 x 20.38 = 3530 range = 3530 m (3.53 km)

Question

Repeat example 2 this time for a firing angle of 45. sin 45 = 0.7071; 200 x sin 45 = 141.4 maximum height = 1020 m time of flight = 28.8 s range = 4072 m (4.07 km) Note: 45 yields the maximum range in this situation.

path of shell

45

maximum height

range

- 02 Lecture SlidesUploaded bytatuxtats
- Ch.1_PacketUploaded byClaire Shin
- Acceleration due to GravityUploaded byxoxvalenxox
- SOAL FISUploaded byEdwina Seviera
- SuvatUploaded byAzadidome
- As 23b OpticsUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- Specialist Maths SampleUploaded byConnect Education
- Classical Mechanics (Cryogenics)Uploaded byPearl Lovedorial
- As h 13b DirectcurrentcircuitsUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- As h 12 QuantumphenomenaUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- Cinematica_ParticulaUploaded byGeovanny Ortega
- AS-H-23a-WavesUploaded byMichael Leung
- As 22 MaterialsUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- As h 11a Matter&RadiationUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- Ch2 HW2 SolutionsUploaded byCharles Yamashiro
- As h 13a CircuitcomponentsUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- Motion Along a Straight Line Spm 2003 - 2009Uploaded bynatrix029
- As h 22 MaterialsUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- as-h-23b-opticsUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- PolyaaUploaded byArjayEscobarRefuerzo
- Gradient&AreaUploaded byFaZz Baa
- physics unit week sept 22nd-26thUploaded byapi-249404110
- Linear Motion Chapter 2Uploaded byMJ Chow
- Assingnment of physics sacred heartUploaded byAkansha Kalra
- practice test ch-01 2Uploaded byapi-301275445
- Chapter 03, 103 PhysUploaded byfadhali
- VelocityParkPreandPostTestQuestionsoct08Uploaded byMaestro de Grapico
- PHYSLAB1ZINN.docxUploaded byBrittany Zinn
- 9702_m18_qp_22Uploaded byAhmed Naser
- Lesson Plan on KinematicsUploaded byAnthony Ramos

- 0625_w15_qp_33Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- Essential Fashion Illustration DigitalUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- Essential Fashion Illustration Essential Color and MediumUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- Essential Fashion Illustration MenUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_m15_ms_62Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_ms_63Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- Essential Fashion Illustration DetailsUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_qp_63Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_ms_62Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_ms_31Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_qp_62Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_qp_61Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_ms_32Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_ms_11Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_qp_32Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_qp_31Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_ms_13Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_qp_11Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_qp_13Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_qp_12Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_ms_61Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_m15_qp_32Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_ms_33Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_ms_12Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_m15_qp_52Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_m15_ms_52Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_m15_qp_62Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_m15_qp_22Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_m15_qp_12Uploaded byHany ElGezawy

- Amerigo VespucciUploaded bydaweelmac
- Project Report on SonyUploaded byGyanendra Sharma
- greig jovanna-resume-semiupdatedUploaded byapi-458704715
- Scandinavian Studies Volume 85 Issue 3 2013 [Doi 10.5406%2Fscanstud.85.3.0267] Anders Andrén -- Places, Monuments, And Objects- The Past in Ancient ScandinaviaUploaded byMarioMartinPaez
- 2 Saliva PhysiologyUploaded byvelangni
- 73982767Uploaded byDali Wu
- Digital Frequency DiscriminatorsUploaded byNorozKhan
- DMAICUploaded bysooraj
- natrescase1Uploaded byPeperonii
- the methodology of the prophet's calling to Allah-that is the way of wisdomUploaded byJason Galvan (Abu Noah Ibrahim Ibn Mikaal)
- Cracks in Functionally Graded MaterialsUploaded bySheng Lai
- Priority QueuesUploaded byGeorge Peck
- Torraca, G. Materials Sciencie Architectural Conservation. 2009Uploaded byTrinidad Pasíes Arqueología-Conservación
- real sexy surat sistersUploaded bygoudtsri
- Strength and Power Training - LivroUploaded byDaniel Cardia
- IFOAM Dairy-humicUploaded byTerryAlbright
- Vocal MusicUploaded bybanikabebe
- laws-04-00091Uploaded byBaron Knigge
- Bizlaw NotesUploaded byAlex Haceaturean
- Wild Swans at CooleUploaded byDannyn Chen
- 1. Typhoid Fever MedicationUploaded byPlot BUnnies
- Courses of Study 2008Uploaded byAnkit Malhotra
- GATCE 2015 Exam TimetableUploaded byDennisEudes
- Surveillance of Milk Adulteration and ItUploaded bySyedFaridAli
- Intercultural Experience and Teacher Professional Development.Uploaded byMarcos Petre
- growing up digital taskforce report january 2017 0Uploaded byapi-354761320
- CE Formula TWIUploaded byAmrut Kajve
- Anti Inflammatory DrugsUploaded byMefs Soto Hasse
- 1.Introduction to DermatologyUploaded byMutasım Battah
- External I - SampleUploaded byMohamadSamman