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# EDEXCEL IGCSE / CERTIFICATE IN PHYSICS 3-1

Properties of Waves
Edexcel IGCSE Physics pages 91 to 98
Content applying to Triple Science only is shown in red type on the next slide and is indicated on subsequent slides by TRIPLE ONLY June 17th 2012

Edexcel Specification
Section 3: Waves b) Properties of Waves understand the difference between longitudinal and transverse waves and describe experiments to show longitudinal and transverse waves in, for example, ropes, springs and water define amplitude, frequency, wavelength and period of a wave understand that waves transfer energy and information without transferring matter know and use the relationship: wave speed = frequency wavelength v = f use the relationship: frequency = 1 / time period f=1/T use the above relationships in different contexts including sound waves and electromagnetic waves understand that waves can be diffracted when they pass an edge understand that waves can be diffracted through gaps, and that the extent of diffraction depends on the wavelength and the physical dimension of the gap.

## Red type: Triple Science Only

Waves
A wave is a means of transferring energy and information from one point to another without there being any transfer of matter between the two points.

Transverse Waves
Transverse waves are waves where the direction of vibrations is at 90 to the direction in which the wave travels.
vibrations

wave direction

## example: water waves

TRANSVERSE WAVE

Longitudinal Waves
Longitudinal waves are waves where the vibrations of the particles are along the direction in which the wave travels. example: sound waves
vibrations wave direction LONGITUDINAL WAVE

## longitudinal wave in slinky

Describing Waves
1. Amplitude (A) Amplitude is the maximum movement of the particles that make up a wave from their rest position.

amplitude

rest position
amplitude

## The amplitude is the height of a crest OR the depth of a trough

2. Wavelength ()
Wavelength is the distance between one wave peak and the next wave peak along the path of a wave. Wavelength is measured in metres.
wavelength

wavelength Wavelength is also the distance between the bottom of one trough to the next.

3. Frequency (f )
Frequency is the number of wave peaks that pass a point in one second. Frequency is measured in hertz (Hz)

## 1 Hz = 1 peak per second 2 Hz = 2 peaks per second and so on.

1 kilohertz (1kHz) = 1 000 Hz 1 megahertz (1MHz) = 1 000 000 Hz 1 gigahertz (1GHz) = 1 000 000 000 Hz 1 terahertz (1THz) = 1 000 000 000 000 Hz

4. Time period (T )
Time period is the time taken for a source to produce one wave. time period = and: frequency = 1 frequency 1 time period

T=1/f

f=1/T

Question 1
Calculate the frequency of a wave of time period 8.0 seconds. f=1/T =1/8 frequency = 0.125 hertz

Question 2
Calculate the time period of a wave of frequency 50Hz. T=1/f = 1 / 50 time period = 0.020 second

## The wave equation

speed = frequency x wavelength v=fx
speed in metres per second (m/s) wavelength in metres (m) frequency in hertz (Hz) also:

and:

f=v =vf

v f

Question 1
Calculate the speed of a water wave of wavelength 3m and frequency 6Hz. v=fx = 6Hz x 3m speed = 18 m/s

Question 2
Calculate the frequency of a wave in water of wavelength 2.0m if its speed is 16m/s. v=fx becomes: f=v = 16 m/s 2m frequency = 8 Hz

Question 3
Calculate the wavelength of a sound wave in water of frequency 300Hz if its speed is 1500m/s. v=fx becomes: =vf = 1500 m/s 300 Hz wavelength = 5 metres

Question 4
Calculate the speed of a wave that has a wavelength of 30m and time period 0.04s. f=1/T = 1 / 0.04s f = 25 hertz v=fx = 25Hz x 30m speed = 750 m/s

v
60 m/s
330 m/s 300 000 000 m/s 300 000 km/s

f
15 Hz

4m 2m 1 500 m

## 165 Hz 200 000 Hz

100 MHz

3m

TRIPLE ONLY

Diffraction
Diffraction occurs when waves spread out after passing through a gap or round an obstacle.
Sea wave diffraction

TRIPLE ONLY

Diffraction becomes more significant when the size of the gap or obstacle is reduced compared with the wavelength of the wave.

## Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below:

energy without the movement of _______ matter A wave transfers _______ from one place to another. transverse wave the particle ____________ vibrations In a __________ are perpendicular to the direction of wave travel.

Frequency is equal to the number of waves produced by a second source in one _________. Time period is equal to the reciprocal ___________ of the frequency.
wavelength in The speed of a wave in m/s is equal to its __________ frequency in hertz. metres multiplied by its __________
WORD SELECTION: frequency transverse reciprocal energy second vibrations wavelength matter

Online Simulations
Simple demonstration of longitudinal & transverse waves - Freezeway.com Wave lab - shows simple transverse & longitudinal waves with reflection causing a stationary wave - by eChalk Wave Effects - PhET - Make waves with a dripping faucet, audio speaker, or laser! Add a second source or a pair of slits to create an interference pattern. Also shows diffraction. Virtual Ripple Tank - falstad Fifty-Fifty Game on Wave Types - by KT - Microsoft WORD Simple transverse wave - netfirms Simple longitudinal wave - netfirms Simple wave comparision - amplitude, wavelength - 7stones Fifty-Fifty Game on Wave Types - by KT - Microsoft WORD Wave on a String - PhET - Watch a string vibrate in slow motion. Wiggle the end of the string and make waves, or adjust the frequency and amplitude of an oscillator. Adjust the damping and tension. The end can be fixed, loose, or open. Vend diagram quiz comparing light and sound waves - eChalk BBC AQA GCSE Bitesize Revision: What are waves Amplitude, wavelength and frequency Wave speed

TRIPLE ONLY

Properties of Waves
Notes questions from pages 91 to 98
1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

(a) What is a wave? (b) Explain the difference between a transverse and longitudinal wave (see pages 91 and 92) Define what is meant by (a) amplitude; (b) wavelength; (c) frequency and (d) time period. (see pages 92 and 93) (a) State the wave equation. (b) Calculate the wavelength of a radio wave of frequency 10MHz, speed 300 000km/s.(see pages 93 and 94) (a) What is wave diffraction? (b) Draw diagrams showing how diffraction is affected by the wavelength of a wave. (see page 97)
Answer the questions on page 98. Verify that you can do all of the items listed in the end of chapter checklist on page 98.

DOUBLE ONLY

Properties of Waves
Notes questions from pages 91 to 98

1.
2. 3.

(a) What is a wave? (b) Explain the difference between a transverse and longitudinal wave (see pages 91 and 92) Define what is meant by (a) amplitude; (b) wavelength; (c) frequency and (d) time period. (see pages 92 and 93) (a) State the wave equation. (b) Calculate the wavelength of a radio wave of frequency 10MHz, speed 300 000km/s. (see pages 93 and 94)
Answer questions 1, 3 and 4 on page 98

4.