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EDEXCEL IGCSE / CERTIFICATE IN PHYSICS 3-2

Using Waves
(The Electromagnetic Spectrum)
Edexcel IGCSE Physics pages 99 to 106
Content applying to Triple Science only is shown in red type on the next slide and is indicated on subsequent slides by TRIPLE ONLY June 17th 2012

Edexcel Specification
Section 3: Waves
c) The electromagnetic spectrum understand that light is part of a continuous electromagnetic spectrum which includes radio, microwave, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-ray and gamma ray radiations and that all these waves travel at the same speed in free space identify the order of the electromagnetic spectrum in terms of decreasing wavelength and increasing frequency, including the colours of the visible spectrum explain some of the uses of electromagnetic radiations, including: radio waves: broadcasting and communications microwaves: cooking and satellite transmissions infrared: heaters and night vision equipment visible light: optical fibres and photography ultraviolet: fluorescent lamps x-rays: observing the internal structure of objects and materials and medical applications gamma rays: sterilising food and medical equipment understand the detrimental effects of excessive exposure of the human body to electromagnetic waves, including: microwaves: internal heating of body tissue infra-red: skin burns ultraviolet: damage to surface cells and blindness gamma rays: cancer, mutation. and describe simple protective measures against the risks. d) Light and sound understand the difference between analogue and digital signals describe the advantages of using digital signals rather than analogue signals describe how digital signals can carry more information

Red type: Triple Science Only

The Electromagnetic Spectrum


The electromagnetic spectrum is a continous spectrum of waves which includes the visible spectrum.

The electromagnetic spectrum is divided into seven bands which in order of decreasing wavelength are:
RADIO WAVES MICROWAVES INFRA-RED LONGEST WAVELENGTH

VISIBLE LIGHT ULTRA-VIOLET X-RAYS


GAMMA RAYS SHORTEST WAVELENGTH

Listing in order of decreasing frequency and energy:


GAMMA RAYS
X-RAYS ULTRA-VIOLET VISIBLE LIGHT INFRA-RED HIGHEST FREQUENCY GREATEST ENERGY

MICROWAVES RADIO WAVES


LOWEST FREQUENCY

LEAST ENERGY

Common properties
All electromagnetic waves, including visible light have the following common properties:
1. They transfer energy 2. They are all transverse waves 3. They all travel at the same speed through a vacuum (300 000 000 m/s) 4. They can all be reflected, refracted and diffracted** Notes:
(a) 300 000 00 m/s is the same as 186 000 miles per second. (b) Through air, light and the other waves travel at about the above speed but through denser substances (for example glass) the speed falls. (c) According to Albert Einsteins Theory of Relativity nothing can travel faster than the speed of light through a vacuum. (d) ** Double Science students do not need to know about diffraction

Question 1
Calculate the wavelength of a radio wave in of frequency 100 MHz if its speed is 300 000 000 m/s.
wave speed (v) = frequency (f) x wavelength () becomes: =vf

= 300 000 000 m/s 100 MHz = 300 000 000 m/s 100 000 000 Hz wavelength = 3.0 metres

Question 2
Calculate the frequency of a light wave of wavelength 0.000 7mm of speed 300 000 000 m/s. v=fx becomes: f=v = 300 000 000 m/s 0 000 7 mm = 300 000 000 m/s 0 000 000 7 m frequency = 429 000 000 000 000 Hz (or = 4.29 x 1014 Hz)

Answers Complete:
highest frequency
GAMMA

longest wavelength
RADIO

greatest energy
GAMMA

X-RAYS
ULTRAVIOLET VISIBLE LIGHT INFRA-RED MICROWAVES RADIO lowest frequency

MICROWAVES
INFRA-RED VISIBLE LIGHT ULTRAVIOLET X-RAYS GAMMA shortest wavelength

X-RAYS
ULTRAVIOLET VISIBLE LIGHT INFRA-RED MICROWAVES RADIO least energy

Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below:


spectrum The electromagnetic __________ is a group of waves that are seven divided into ________ bands.
shortest wavelength, highest Gamma rays have the ________ energy frequency and ________. The rest of the spectrum, in order of increasing wavelength are:

x-rays, _________, ultraviolet visible light, infra-red, ___________ microwaves and radio waves.
speed All electromagnetic waves travel at the same _______ vacuum through a __________, 300 000 000 m/s.

WORD SELECTION: shortest energy spectrum vacuum ultraviolet


speed seven microwaves

Radio waves

Radio and television both use radio waves

RADIO MICROWAVES INFRA-RED LIGHT ULTRA-VIOLET X-RAYS

Radio waves have the longest wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically 100 metres.
A radio transmitter

GAMMA RAYS

Uses of radio waves


Radio waves are used in: radio and television communication medicine with MRI scanners astronomy to see the centre of our galaxy

MRI scanner and scan

Radio telescope

Transmitting and receiving radio waves


Radio waves are emitted from a transmitter aerial when an alternating voltage is connected to the aerial. The radio wave emitted has the same frequency as the alternating voltage.
When these radio waves pass across a receiver aerial, they cause a tiny alternating voltage of the same frequency to occur in the aerial.

radio wave

transmitter

receiver

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Diffraction
Diffraction occurs when a wave spreads out from a gap or bends around an obstacle. Diffraction is more significant with low frequency, long wavelength waves. Diffraction results in the energy of the wave spreading out.
Diffraction around an obstacle

Diffraction out of a gap

Radio frequency bands


The radio and microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum is subdivided into frequency bands. The uses of each band depends on its frequency range. The higher the frequency: The more information that can be carried this can result in better quality sound and video or more channels. The shorter their range due to greater absorption by the atmosphere. The less the signal spreads out less diffraction hills and large buildings also are more likely to stop the signal.
Higher frequency waves are less able to diffract around buildings and hills

Wavebands
Waveband
Microwaves UHF (ultra-high frequency) VHF (very-high frequency)

Frequency range
greater than 3 GHz
(wavelength less than 10 cm)

Uses
Satellite TV Mobile phones Terrestrial TV Mobile phones FM radio Emergency services Digital radio
Amateur radio International radio (AM)

300 MHz 3 GHz


(wavelengths: 10 - 100 cm)

30 MHz 300 MHz


(wavelengths: 1 - 10 m)

HF (high frequency)
also called short wave or SW

3 MHz 30 MHz
(wavelengths: 10 100 m)

MF (medium frequency)
also called medium wave or MW

300 kHz 3 MHz


(wavelengths: 100 1000 m)

National radio (AM) International radio (AM)


Submarine communication

LF (low frequency)
also called long wave or LW

30 kHz 300 MHz


(wavelengths: 1 10 km)

VLF (very-low frequency)

less than 30 kHz


(wavelengths more than 10 km)

Note: 1 GHz = 1000 MHz; 1 MHz = 1000 kHz; 1 kHz = 1000 Hz

Radio waves and the ionosphere

The ionosphere is a layer of gas in the upper atmosphere that reflects radio waves of frequencies less than about 30 MHz. Radio waves can be reflected off the bottom of the ionosphere enabling them to travel great distances.

The ionosphere is stronger in summer than winter and so distant radio stations can be received better in summer. Before the advent of satellites, using the ionosphere was one of the main ways of communicating around the world.

Microwaves

Two uses of microwaves

RADIO MICROWAVES INFRA-RED LIGHT ULTRA-VIOLET X-RAYS GAMMA RAYS

Microwaves have wavelengths of typically 10 cm.


Microwave transmitter / receiver used for a mobile phone network.

Uses of microwaves
Microwaves are used for: cooking mobile phone communication satellite television astronomy finding out about the origin of the Universe
Satellite television receiver

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

Dangers of microwaves
Microwaves can cause internal heating of body tissue. Microwave ovens contain metal shielding to prevent the microwaves from leaking out.

Some people believe that over use of mobile phones can lead to brain damage.

Infra-red radiation
An infra-red or thermal image. RED = hot BLUE = cold

Despite appearances this heater is giving off mostly invisible infra-red radiation.

RADIO MICROWAVES INFRA-RED LIGHT ULTRA-VIOLET X-RAYS GAMMA RAYS

Infra-red waves have wavelengths of typically a millionth of a metre (1 micrometre) They are emitted by all objects. The hotter the object, the more infra-red radiation is emitted.

Infra-red photograph.
brighter = hotter

Uses of infra-red
Infra-red waves are used: to cook food by remote controls in communication systems using optical fibres to detect intruders in burglar alarms in night sights in astronomy to see behind gas clouds

Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below:


longer Infra-red radiation has a _________ wavelength than visible emitted by all objects. The higher the light and is _________ temperature of an object the greater is the amount of IR ___________ radiation emitted.
centimetres Microwaves have wavelengths of a few ___________ and are cooking and communication. used for ________ lowest Radio waves have the longest wavelengths but the ________ frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum. Radio waves galaxy are used to study the centre of our _________. WORD SELECTION: emitted lowest galaxy cooking temperature longer centimetres

Visible light

RADIO MICROWAVES INFRA-RED LIGHT ULTRA-VIOLET X-RAYS GAMMA RAYS

RED ORANGE YELLOW GREEN BLUE INDIGO VIOLET

Visible light is emitted from hot objects like the Sun. Visible light has wavelengths ranging from: 0.000 000 4m (violet) to 0.000 000 7m (red).

White light can be split into the colour spectrum using a prism or with water.

Uses of visible light


Visible light is used: for sight in photography in optical fibres in photosynthesis

Ultraviolet

Security markings show up under ultraviolet light

Ultraviolet emitted by the Sun

Fluorescent lamps and energy efficient bulbs work using uv

RADIO MICROWAVES INFRA-RED LIGHT ULTRA-VIOLET X-RAYS GAMMA RAYS

Ultraviolet has a wavelength of typically of a ten millionth of a metre. UV is produced from very hot objects like the Sun or from special electrical tubes. Most of the Suns ultraviolet radiation is absorbed by the Ozone layer in the upper part of the Earths atmosphere. UV is also stopped by glass.

Uses of ultraviolet
Ultraviolet is used in: Fluorescent lamps including energy efficient light bulbs Security devices Dentistry Pest control Astronomy

A bird appears on many Visa credit cards when held under a UV light source

Ultraviolet light used in cosmetic dentistry

zapper attracts insects using uv

Safety with ultraviolet


The Suns ultraviolet light is responsible for sun tan.

wear a hat

sunglasses with UV protection

cover up when the Sun is strongest

Too much exposure to UV can cause blindness and skin cancer.

longer shorts offer protection

use a high sun protection factor sunscreen reapply after swimming

X-rays

X-ray photographs

Exploding stars emit X-rays

RADIO MICROWAVES INFRA-RED LIGHT ULTRA-VIOLET X-RAYS GAMMA RAYS

X-rays have wavelengths of typically a billionth of a metre. They are produced from X-ray tubes that use very high voltage (typically one hundred thousand volts). They are very penetrating and are only stopped by several centimetres of lead.

Uses of X-rays
X-rays are used in: X-ray photographs Airport security Cancer treatment Astronomy

Taking an X-ray (radiograph)


X-rays pass through soft tissue but are absorbed by bones.
X-rays are directed onto the patient from the X-ray tube. A light proof cassette containing a photographic film is placed on the other side of the patient.

A patient being prepared for a radiograph

When the X-ray tube is switched on, the X-rays pass through the patients body leaving a shadow image on the film showing the bones. When the film is developed the parts exposed by the X-rays are darker than the other parts. The bones show up as lighter regions on the radiograph.

A chest X-ray

Gamma Rays

Gamma rays are given off by nuclear explosions

Gamma rays are emitted from material falling into black holes

Gamma Rays
RADIO MICROWAVES INFRA-RED LIGHT ULTRA-VIOLET X-RAYS GAMMA RAYS

Gamma rays have the shortest wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically a millionth millionth of a metre. They are emitted by radioactive substances. They are very penetrating and are only stopped by several centimetres of lead.

Uses of gamma rays


Gamma rays are used: to kill cancer cells to kill harmful bacteria in food to sterilise surgical instruments
Gamma rays being used to treat cancer

Safety with gamma and X-rays


Too much exposure to gamma rays or X-rays is dangerous. High doses kill living cells. Low doses cause cell mutation and cancerous growth. Workers who use equipment producing gamma or X-rays wear a film badge called a dosemeter. The film in the badge darkens if the person receives a too high dosage of radiation.
a dosemeter

Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below:


dangerous radiations of the Gamma and X-rays are the most _________ mutation electromagnetic spectrum. Both can cause cell _________ and cancerous growth although both can also be used to cancer treat ________.
lead to be stopped. Both require several centimetres of ______ bones allowing the production of X-rays are absorbed by ______ radiographs. bacteria in food and to Gamma rays are used to kill _________ sterilise _________ medical instruments.

WORD SELECTION:
bones mutation cancer bacteria lead dangerous sterilise

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Communication With Waves

TRIPLE ONLY

Analogue and digital signals


Communication signals may be analogue or digital.
Analogue signals vary continuously in amplitude between zero and some maximum level. Digital signals only have two voltage levels, for example +5V and 0V.

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Examples of analogue and digital systems


ANALOGUE DIGITAL

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Advantages of using digital signals


1. Less interference than with analogue signals. Interference causes a hissing noise with analogue radio. This does not happen with digital signals because regenerator circuits are used to clean noisy pulses. So a digital signal has a higher quality than an analogue one.

Regenerator
Noisy pulse in Clean pulse out

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2. Much more information can be sent. Digital pulses can be made very short so more pulses can be carried each second. Different signals can be sent together by a process called multiplexing.

3. Digital signals are easily processed by computers. Computers are digital devices!

Online Simulations
Sequential Puzzle on EM Spectrum Wavelength order- by KT - Microsoft WORD Sequential Puzzle on EM Spectrum Frequency order- by KT - Microsoft WORD Hidden Pairs Game on EM Spectrum Uses - by KT Microsoft WORD Electromagnetic Spectrum bounce quiz - eChalk Radio Waves & Electromagnetic Fields - PhET - Broadcast radio waves from KPhET. Wiggle the transmitter electron manually or have it oscillate automatically. Display the field as a curve or vectors. The strip chart shows the electron positions at the transmitter and at the receiver. Microwaves - PhET - How do microwaves heat up your coffee? Adjust the frequency and amplitude of microwaves. Watch water molecules rotating and bouncing around. View the microwave field as a wave, a single line of vectors, or the entire field. Thermal Camera Pictures - falstad The Greenhouse Effect - PhET - Just how do greenhouse gases change the climate? Select the level of atmospheric greenhouse gases during an ice age, in the year 1750, today, or some time in the future and see how the Earth's temperature changes. Add clouds or panes of glass. Making X-rays - Colorado X-rays - Fluoroscope demo - Colorado Fibre optic reflection - NTNU BBC AQA GCSE Bitesize Revision: What is a spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum - table Radio waves Microwaves UV & IR Gamma & X-rays Hazards of radiation Optical fibres Analogue & digital signals Comaparing analogue & digital

TRIPLE ONLY

Using Waves
Notes questions from pages 99 to 106

1. 2.

3.
4. 5.

Copy the table on page 106. Give five common properties of all members of the electromagnetic spectrum. (see page 99) List the colours of the visible spectrum in order of increasing wavelength. (see page 102) State the hazards of (a) microwaves; (b) ultra-violet; (c) X-rays and gamma rays. (see pages 101 to 103) (a) Explain the difference between analogue and digital signals. (b) What are the advantages of using digital signals? (see pages 104 and 105) Answer the questions on page 106. Verify that you can do all of the items listed in the end of chapter checklist on page 106.

6. 7.

DOUBLE SCIENCE ONLY

Using Waves

Notes questions from pages 99 to 106

1. Copy the table on page 106. 2. Give five common properties of all members of the electromagnetic spectrum. (see page 99) 3. List the colours of the visible spectrum in order of increasing wavelength. (see page 102) 4. State the hazards of (a) microwaves; (b) ultraviolet; (c) X-rays and gamma rays. (see pages 101 to 103) 5. Answer questions 1 and 2 on page 106.