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EDEXCEL IGCSE / CERTIFICATE IN PHYSICS 6-1

Magnetism and Electromagnetism


Edexcel IGCSE Physics pages 179 to 186
Content applying to Triple Science only is shown in red type on the next slide and is indicated on subsequent slides by TRIPLE ONLY September 19th 2012

Edexcel Specification
Section 6: Magnetism and electromagnetism b) Magnetism understand that magnets repel and attract other magnets and attract magnetic substances describe the properties of magnetically hard and soft materials understand the term magnetic field line understand that magnetism is induced in some materials when they are placed in a magnetic field describe experiments to investigate the magnetic field pattern for a permanent bar magnet and that between two bar magnets describe how to use two permanent magnets to produce a uniform magnetic field pattern. c) Electromagnetism understand that an electric current in a conductor produces a magnetic field round it describe the construction of electromagnets sketch and recognise magnetic field patterns for a straight wire, a flat circular coil and a solenoid when each is carrying a current

Red type: Triple Science Only

TRIPLE ONLY

Magnets and magnetic materials


Magnets attract objects made of magnetic materials Magnetic materials include the elements iron, nickel, cobalt, alloys containing some of these such as steel and some of their compounds.

iron

nickel

cobalt

stainless steel

TRIPLE ONLY

Hard and soft magnetic materials


Permanent magnets are made of magnetically HARD materials such as steel. These materials retain their magnetisation once magnetised. Magnetically SOFT materials, such as iron, lose their magnetisation easily. They suitable for temporary magnets such as electromagnets.

TRIPLE ONLY

Magnetic poles
Magnetic poles are the parts of a magnet that exert the greatest force. Magnetic poles occur in pairs usually called north (N) and south (S)
Iron filing are attracted mostly to the poles of a magnet

TRIPLE ONLY

Why poles are called north and south


A magnet suspended so that it can rotate freely horizontally will eventually settle down with one pole facing north and the other south. This is pole is therefore called the north seeking pole, usually shortened to just north pole.

The magnet has been orientated by the Earths magnetic field. A compass is an application of this effect.

north

TRIPLE ONLY

The law of magnets


Like poles repel unlike poles attract

Magnetic fields
A magnetic field is a volume of space where magnetic force is exerted. All magnets are surrounded by magnetic fields. The shape of a magnetic field can be shown by iron filings or plotting compasses.

Magnetic field around a bar magnet


magnetic field line Arrows on the field lines show the direction of the force on a free to move north pole

The stronger the magnetic field the denser the magnetic field lines.

Magnetic fields between two bar magnets

Producing a uniform magnetic field


A uniform magnetic field exerts a constant force over a region. Such a field will consist of parallel equally spaced magnetic field lines. This type of field can almost be found between a north and south magnetic pole.

The Earths magnetic field


The earths magnetic field is similar in shape to that around a bar magnet. It is thought to be caused by electric currents flowing through the molten outer core of the Earth. At the present the field pattern is like that with a magnetic SOUTH pole situated somewhere below northern Greenland

TRIPLE ONLY

Induced magnetism
Magnetism can be induced in a magnetic material if it is placed within a magnetic field.
iron bar

If the material is magnetically hard it will retain its magnetism once removed from the field. Certain rocks in the Earths crust such as lodestone have been magnetised in this way by the Earths magnetic field.

TRIPLE ONLY

Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below:


soft Magnetic materials are either hard or ______. Hard steel retain their magnetisation magnetic materials such as ______ once magnetised.

A magnetic _____ pole is a region where the magnetic force is pairs greatest. Magnetic poles always occur in ______. Like poles repel _______, unlike attract.
field A magnetic ______ is a region where magnetic force is direction of the magnetic field around a bar exerted. The ________ magnet is from north to south. WORD SELECTION: pole repel steel pairs field direction soft

Electromagnetism

In 1820 Hans rsted No current, noticed that a wire carrying compass an electric current caused a points to north compass needle to deflect.

Current, compass deflected

TRIPLE ONLY

Magnetic field patterns around wires 1. Straight wire


The magnetic field consists of concentric circles centred on the wire.
The magnetic field is strongest near the wire. This is shown by the field lines being closest together near to the wire. The strength of the field increases if the electric current is increased.

TRIPLE ONLY

The right-hand grip rule (for fields)


Grip the wire with the RIGHT hand.

The thumb is placed in the direction of the electric current. The fingers show the direction of the circular magnetic field.

TRIPLE ONLY

Complete the diagrams below:


Add field arrows Add current direction Add current direction Add field arrows

Electric current out of the page Electric current into the page

TRIPLE ONLY

2. Flat circular coil

Plan view

TRIPLE ONLY

3. Solenoid
A solenoid is a coil of wire carrying an electric current. The magnetic field is similar in shape to that around a bar magnet. N The strength of the field increases with: 1. the electric current 2. the number of turns in the coil S

TRIPLE ONLY

The right-hand grip rule (for poles)


Grip the coil with the RIGHT hand.

The fingers are placed in the direction that the eclectic current flows around the coil.
The thumb points towards the north pole end of the coil.

TRIPLE ONLY

Complete the diagrams below:


1. Locate north 2. Locate south 3. Add current direction

S
N

4. Add coils

TRIPLE ONLY

Electromagnets
An electromagnet consists of a current carrying coil wrapped around an iron core.

TRIPLE ONLY

Uses of electromagnets
1. Scrap yard crane
The iron core of the electromagnet is a SOFT magnetic material. When current flows the iron becomes strongly magnetised and so picks up the scrap iron and steel. When the current is turned off the iron loses its magnetisation and so releases the scrap.

TRIPLE ONLY

2. The electric bell


When the push switch is closed current flows around the circuit push turning on the electromagnet. switch The soft iron armature is pulled towards the electromagnet and the hammer hits the gong. This causes the contact switch to open cutting off the electric current. The spring now pulls the armature back again closing the contact switch. contact switch soft iron armature gong hammer spring

electromagnet

Current now flows again and the hammer hits the gong again.

TRIPLE ONLY

Label the diagram of the electric bell below:


2
5

3
Contact 7switch

6 1 8 4

TRIPLE ONLY

3. The relay switch


A relay switch is a way of using a low voltage circuit to switch remotely a high voltage (and possibly dangerous) circuit.
When switch A is closed, the small current provided by the cell causes the electromagnet to become magnetised..
electromagnet switch A iron armature

The iron armature is then attracted to the electromagnet causing the springy contact switch B to close in the high voltage circuit.
springy contact switch B

hinge

to high voltage circuit

TRIPLE ONLY

4. Circuit breaker
2

Current normally flows between terminals A and B through the contact and the electromagnet. When the current in a circuit increases, the strength of the electromagnet will also increase. This will pull the soft iron armature towards the electromagnet. As a result, spring 1 pulls apart the contact and disconnecting the circuit immediately, and stopping current flow.

The reset button can be pushed to bring the contact back to its original position to reconnect the circuit

Domestic circuit breakers

TRIPLE ONLY

Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below:


current produces a magnetic field. A wire carrying an electric ______ strength if the current is increased. This field increases in ________

solenoid is a coil of wire carrying an electric current. The A ________ turns field produced increases in strength if the number of _____ iron is placed inside the coil. in the coil is increased or if _____

An ____________ electromagnet consists of a coil of a solenoid wrapped soft around an iron core. Iron is a ______ magnetic material that loses its magnetisation once the current in the coil is switched off.
WORD SELECTION:
solenoid iron strength turns electromagnet current soft

Online Simulations
Bar magnet field - Fendt Faraday Electromagnetic Lab - PhET - Play with a bar magnet and coils to learn about Faraday's law. Move a bar magnet near one or two coils to make a light bulb glow. View the magnetic field lines. A meter shows the direction and magnitude of the current. View the magnetic field lines or use a meter to show the direction and magnitude of the current. You can also play with electromagnets, generators and transformers! Field around a straight conductor - Fendt Magnetic field around a straight wire / coil / solenoid - NTNU Relay demonstration - Freezeway.com Electric Bell demonstration - Freezeway.com BBC KS3 Bitesize Revision: Bar Magnets Magnetic Fields Electromagnets Using Electromagnets - includes an applet showing how an electric bell works

TRIPLE ONLY

Magnetism and Electromagnetism


Notes questions from pages 179 to 186
1. 2. 3. State what happens when different types of magnetic poles are placed near to each other. (see page 180) (a) What is the difference between magnetically soft and hard materials? (b) Give examples and uses of each type. (see page 180) (a) Draw the magnetic field patterns between and around magnets shown on page 181.(b) Explain what the magnetic field lines show about the magnetic fields. Explain how a uniform magnetic field can be produced. (see page 181) Draw the magnetic field patterns around and inside; (a) a straight conducting wire; (b) a flat coil; (c) a solenoid. (see pages 182 and 183) Draw a labelled diagram showing the construction of an electromagnet. (see page 183)
Draw a diagram and explain the operation of an electric bell. (see page 183) Draw a diagram and explain the operation of a circuit breaker. (see page 184) Draw a diagram and explain the operation of a relay. (see page 185) Answer the questions on page 186.
Verify that you can do all of the items listed in the end of chapter checklist on page 186.

4. 5.
6.
7. 8. 9. 10.
11.

DOUBLE SCIENCE ONLY

Magnetism and Electromagnetism


Notes questions from pages 179 to 186

1. (a) Draw the magnetic field patterns between and around magnets shown on page 181.(b) Explain what the magnetic field lines show about the magnetic fields. 2. Explain how a uniform magnetic field can be produced. (see page 181) 3. Draw the magnetic field patterns around a straight conducting wire (see page 182)