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EDEXCEL IGCSE / CERTIFICATE IN PHYSICS 6-2

Electric Motors and Electromagnetic Induction


Edexcel IGCSE Physics pages 187 to 196
Content applying to Triple Science only is shown in red type on the next slide and is indicated on subsequent slides by TRIPLE ONLY
June 17th 2012

Edexcel Specification
Section 6: Magnetism and electromagnetism c) Electromagnetism undertand that there is a force on a charged particle when it moves in a magnetic field as long as its motion is not parallel to the field undertand that a force is exerted on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field, and how this effect is applied in simple d.c. electric motors and loudspeakers use the left hand rule to predict the direction of the resulting force when a wire carries a current perpendicular to a magnetic field describe how the force on a currentcarrying conductor in a magnetic field increases with the strength of the field and with the current.
d) Electromagnetic induction understand that a voltage is induced in a conductor or a coil when it moves through a magnetic field or when a magnetic field changes through it; and describe the factors which affect the size of the induced voltage describe the generation of electricity by the rotation of a magnet within a coil of wire and of a coil of wire within a magnetic field; also describe the factors which affect the size of the induced voltage describe the structure of a transformer, and understand that a transformer changes the size of an alternating voltage by having different numbers of turns on the input and output sides explain the use of step-up and step-down transformers in the large-scale generation and transmission of electrical energy know and use the relationship: input (primary) voltage / output (secondary) voltage = primary turns / secondary turns Vp / V s = n p / n s recall and use the relationship: input power = output power VP IP = Vs Is for 100% efficiency

Red type: Triple Science Only

TRIPLE ONLY

Charge deflection by a magnetic field


S
Electric charges are deflected by magnetic fields provided they are not travelling parallel to the field lines. Positive and negative charges are deflected in opposite directions.

+
N

The motor effect


When a current carrying conductor carrying an electric current is placed in a magnetic field, it will experience a force provided that the conductor is not placed parallel to the field lines. This is called the motor effect.

+
N

Motor effect - Fendt

The force increases if:


the strength of the magnetic field is increased the current is increased

The direction of the force is reversed if either the direction of the current or the direction of the magnetic field is reversed.

Motor effect - Fendt

Flemings left-hand motor rule

Note:
Magnetic field direction is from NORTH to SOUTH Current direction is from PLUS to MINUS
Motor effect - Fendt

Insert the missing information


Q1. Force direction ? N S Q2 Current direction ? S N

Q3 N and S poles ? Q4 Force directions ? N S

Note:

means current out of the page


means current into the page

Motor effect - Fendt

The electric motor


Electric current flowing around the coil of the electric motor produces oppositely directed forces on each side of the coil. These forces cause the coil to rotate. Every half revolution the split ring commutator causes the current in the coil to reverse otherwise the coil would stop in the vertical position.

Electric motor - Fendt

rotation axis

N
contact brush

S
Brushes regain in contact lose contact contact with with with the the splitsplit the ringring commutator. commutator. Current flows no longer through flows the through motor coil. coil the but motor in the coil. opposite original direction. Forces The coilexert will continue a clockwise to rotate turning effect clockwise Forces exert due a on to clockwise the its coil momentum. turning effect on the coil.

split-ring commutator

+
Electric motor - Fendt

Model electric motor

Electric motor - Fendt

The loudspeaker
The sound signal consists of an alternating current supplied by the amplifier.
This current flows through the coil of the loudspeaker. Due to the motor effect, the magnetic field around the coil causes the coil to vibrate in step with the alternating current.

The coil causes the diaphragm (speaker cone) to vibrate in step with the original sound signal.
The diaphragm causes air to vibrate and so produces a sound wave.

Question
Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below:
current carrying wire is The motor effect occurs when a _______ magnetic field. placed inside a ________ maximum when the wire is at 90 to the The force exerted is __________ direction parallel to magnetic field __________ but is zero if the wire is ________ the field. field The force increases with _________ or current strength, the reverses force __________ in direction if either are reversed. loudspeaker Applications include the electric motor and ___________. WORD SELECTION: parallel reverses loudspeaker direction field current magnetic maximum

Electromagnetic induction
If an electrical conductor cuts through magnetic field lines, a voltage is induced across the ends of the conductor. If the wire is part of a complete circuit, a current is induced in the wire. This is called electromagnetic induction and is sometimes called the generator effect.

Generator - Fendt

If a magnet is moved into a coil of wire, a voltage is induced across the ends of the coil. If the direction of motion, or the polarity of the magnet, is reversed, then the direction of the induced voltage and the induced current are also reversed. Electromagnetic induction also occurs if the magnetic field is stationary and the coil is moved.

Generator - Fendt

The size of the induced voltage increases when:


the speed of the movement increases the strength of the magnetic field increases the number of turns on the coil increases the area of the coil is greater.

Generator - Fendt

Alternating Current Generators


Most electricity is produced using the generator effect. The simplest generators and the types used in power stations produce alternating current (A.C.)

Generator - Fendt

Moving Coil A.C. Generator

Generator - Fendt

Generator - Fendt

This like an electric motor in reverse. As the coil is rotated electromagnetic induction occurs. An alternating voltage is induced in the coil. An alternating current is drawn off through two slip rings. The faster the coil is rotated: - the greater is the amplitude of the voltage and current - the higher is the frequency of the a.c.

Generator - Fendt

Bicycle generator
When the wheel turns the magnet is made to rotate next to the fixed coil of wire. Electromagnetic induction occurs and a alternating voltage is induced in the coil.
This causes an alternating current to flow to the light bulb of the bicycle.

Generator - Fendt

Question 1
The graph opposite shows how the voltage of a generator varies in time. Using the same set of axes show how the voltage would vary if the rotational speed of the generator was doubled.
V

time

The new voltage will have TWICE the amplitude AND frequency of the original.

Question 2
Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below:

The _________ generator effect occurs when a conductor is moved magnetic relative to a ____________ field. This is also known as induction electromagnetic ___________.
movement of the conductor and The greater the relative __________ greater is the voltage ________. induced magnetic field the _______ complete circuit an electric If the conductor is part of a ________ current will flow. alternating ___________ current is produced if the direction of movement reversed is continually _________. WORD SELECTION: generator magnetic complete alternating induction induced greater reversed

movement

TRIPLE ONLY

The transformer
A transformer is a device that is used to change one alternating voltage level to another.

circuit symbol

Transformer - eChalk

TRIPLE ONLY

Structure of a transformer
A transformer consists of at least two coils of wire wrapped around a laminated iron core.
PRIMARY COIL of Np turns SECONDARY COIL of Ns turns

PRIMARY VOLTAGE Vp laminated iron core Transformer - eChalk

SECONDARY VOLTAGE Vs

TRIPLE ONLY

How a transformer works


When an alternating voltage, Vp is applied to the primary coil of Np turns it causes an alternating to flow in this coil. This current causes a changing magnetic field in the laminated iron core which cuts across the secondary coil of Ns turns. Electromagnetic induction occurs in this coil which produces an alternating voltage, Vs.

Transformer - eChalk

TRIPLE ONLY

Question
Why can a transformer not change the level of the voltage output of a battery?
A battery produces a steady (DC) voltage. This voltage would cause a constant direct current in the primary coil of a transformer. This current would produce an unchanging magnetic field in the iron core. This unchanging magnetic field would NOT cause electromagnetic induction in the secondary coil. There would therefore be no secondary voltage.

TRIPLE ONLY

The transformer equation


The voltages or potential differences across the primary and secondary coils of a transformer are related by the equation: primary voltage secondary voltage Vp Vs = primary turns secondary turns Np Ns

Transformer - eChalk

TRIPLE ONLY

Question 1
Calculate the secondary voltage of a transformer that has a primary coil of 1200 turns and a secondary of 150 turns if the primary is supplied with 230V. Vp = Np Vs Ns 230 / Vs = 1200 / 150 230 / Vs = 8 230 = 8 x Vs 230 / 8 = Vs Secondary voltage = 28.8 V
Transformer - eChalk

TRIPLE ONLY

Question 2
Calculate the number of turns required for the primary coil of a transformer if secondary has 400 turns and the primary voltage is stepped up from 12V to a secondary voltage of 48V. Vp = Np Vs Ns 12 / 48 = Np / 400 0.25 = Np / 400 0.25 x 400 = Np Primary has 100 turns

Transformer - eChalk

TRIPLE ONLY

Answers Complete:
PRIMARY Voltage 230 V 230 V 230 V 9V Turns 1000 500 200 120 SECONDARY Voltage 11.5 V 46 V V 46 920 V 72 V Turns 50 100 800 960

Transformer - eChalk

TRIPLE ONLY

Transformer power transfer equation


If a transformer is 100% efficient then the power input to the primary coil is equalled by the power output from the secondary coil.

as power = current x voltage then:

Ip x Vp = Is x Vs

TRIPLE ONLY

Question 1
Calculate the primary current if when a transformer is supplied with 230V the secondary provides 4A at a voltage of 13V. Assume that the transformer is 100% efficient. Ip x Vp = Is x Vs

Ip x 230V = 4A x 13V Ip = 52 / 230 Primary current = 0.226 A

TRIPLE ONLY

Question 2
Calculate the secondary current from a transformer supplying a secondary voltage of 6V if the primary is supplied with a current of 0.20A at 230V. Assume that the transformer is 100% efficient. Ip x Vp = Is x Vs 0.2A x 230V = Is x 6V Is = 46 / 6 Secondary current = 7.67 A

TRIPLE ONLY

Answers Complete:
PRIMARY Np 600 100 300
8 50

SECONDARY Ip 0.4 A 8A 0.4 6 A 10 A Ns 30 4000 3 50 250 Vp 10V 1 480V 12V 5 125V Is 82 A 0.2 4 A 2.4 A 2A

Vp 200V 12V 72V


7 25V

TRIPLE ONLY

Step-up transformers
In a step-up transformer the voltage across the secondary coil is greater than the voltage across the primary coil. The secondary turns must be greater than the primary turns. Use: To increase the voltage output from a power station from 25 kV (25 000 V) to up to 400 kV.

Transformer - eChalk

TRIPLE ONLY

Step-down transformers
In a step-down transformer the voltage across the secondary coil is smaller than the voltage across the primary coil. The secondary turns must be smaller than the primary turns. Use: To decrease the voltage output from the mains supply from 230V to 18V to power and recharge a lap-top computer.

Transformer - eChalk

TRIPLE ONLY

Transformers and the National Grid


The National Grid is the system of cables used to deliver electrical power from power stations to consumers. The higher the voltage used, the greater is the efficiency of energy transmission. Lower voltages result in higher electric currents and greater energy loss to heat due to the resistance of the cables.

TRIPLE ONLY

At power stations the output voltage of the generators is stepped up by transformers from 25kV to 132kV.

The voltage may be further increased to up to 400 kV for transmission over long distance pylon lines.

TRIPLE ONLY

The voltage is reduced in stages by step-down transformers to different levels for different types of consumer. The lowest level is 230V for domestic use. The final stepdown transformer will be at sub station within a few hundred metres of each group of houses.

TRIPLE ONLY

Question 1
Why is electrical energy transmitted over the National Grid in the form of alternating current?
To maximise efficiency high voltages must be used. Voltage therefore needs to be changed in level. Transformers are needed to change voltage levels. Transformers only work with alternating current.

TRIPLE ONLY

Question 2

Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below:

Transformers are used to change one ___________ voltage alternating level to another. They do not work with ____________current. direct
increase the voltage because their Step-up transformers _________ secondary ___________ coil has more turns than the primary. 25 kV National Transformers are used in the __________ Grid. The _______ 400 kV output of a power station is increased to up to _______. A high energy resistance voltage reduces the ________ lost to heat due to the _________ of the power lines. WORD SELECTION:

energy

direct

National 400 kV

secondary

resistance

increase

alternating 25 kV

Electromagnetism Simulations
Motor effect - Fendt Electric motor - Fendt Faraday Electromagnetic Lab PhET Play with a bar magnet and coils to learn about Faraday's law. Move a bar magnet near one or two coils to make a light bulb glow. View the magnetic field lines. A meter shows the direction and magnitude of the current. View the magnetic field lines or use a meter to show the direction and magnitude of the current. You can also play with electromagnets, generators and transformers! Faraday's Law - PhET - Light a light bulb by waving a magnet. This demonstration of Faraday's Law shows you how to reduce your power bill at the expense of your grocery bill. Generator - Fendt Transformer - load can be changed but not turns ration netfirms Transformer - eChalk

TRIPLE ONLY

Electric Motors and Electromagnetic Induction


Notes questions from pages 187 to 196
1. (a) What is the motor effect? (b) What factors determine the size of the force exerted on a conductor in a magnetic field? (c) With the aid of a diagram show how Flemings left-hand rule can be used to find the direction of the force on a conductor. Copy figures 22.5 and 22.6 and explain how a moving coil loudspeaker and electric motor work. (a) Draw diagrams and explain what is meant by electromagnetic induction? (b) What factors determine the size of the voltage produced? Copy figure 22.12 and use it to explain how a simple generator works. Copy figure 22.16 and use it to explain how a transformer works. Copy the two transformer equations on pages 193 and 194 and find the secondary current and voltage for a 100% efficient transformer that has a primary coil of 800 turns supplied with 2A at 40V if the secondary coil has 100 turns. Explain what is meant by step-up and step-down transformers and how they are used in the UKs National Grid system. Answer the questions on pages 195 and 196. Verify that you can do all of the items listed in the end of chapter checklist on page 195.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7.
8. 9.

DOUBLE SCIENCE ONLY

Electric Motors and Electromagnetic Induction


Notes questions from pages 187 to 196
1. (a) What is the motor effect? (b) What factors determine the size of the force exerted on a conductor in a magnetic field? (c) With the aid of a diagram show how Flemings left-hand rule can be used to find the direction of the force on a conductor. Copy figures 22.5 and 22.6 and explain how a moving coil loudspeaker and electric motor work. (a) Draw diagrams and explain what is meant by electromagnetic induction? (b) What factors determine the size of the voltage produced? Copy figure 22.12 and use it to explain how a simple generator works. Answer questions 1, 2 and 3 on pages 195 and 196.

2. 3. 4. 5.