You are on page 1of 66

PETE 689 Underbalanced Drilling (UBD)

Lesson 7
Foam Drilling Hydraulics
Read: UDM Chapter 2.5 - 2.6 Pages 2.75-2.130 MudLite Manual Chapter 2 Pages 2.1-2.14
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Foam Drilling Hydraulics


Benefits

of foam drilling. Rheology. Circulating pressures. Limitations of foam drilling. Homework # 2.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Benefits of Foam Drilling


High

viscosity allows efficient cuttings transport. Gas injection rates can be much lower than dry gas or mist drilling. Low density of foam allows UB conditions be established in almost all circumstances.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Benefits of Foam Drilling


BHP

tends to be higher than dry gas or mist operations and penetration rates maybe reduced. But, penetration rates are still much higher than conventional. Low annular velocities reduce hole erosion.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Benefits of Foam Drilling


Higher

annular pressures with foam than with gasses can potentially reduce mechanical wellbore stability. Even if air is used as the gas, foam drilling can prevent downhole fires. Probably the greatest benefit of foam drilling is the ability to lift large volumes of produced liquids.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Rheology
Two

factors that have the greatest impact on the flow behavior of foams are quality and flow rate. Foam viscosity is largely independent of the foaming agents concentration in the liquid phase.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Rheology
When

viscosifying agents are added to the liquid phase, the foam viscosity increases with increasing liquid phase viscosity. Foam rheology is not very sensitive to other flow variables

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Rheology
Einstein (quality from 0 to 54%)
mf = m(1.0+2.5 G)
Where mf = foam viscosity. m = viscosity of base liquid. G = foam quality (fraction).

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Rheology
Hatschek (quality from 0 to 74%)
mf = m(1.0+4.5G) Hatschek (quality from 75% to 100%)

mf = m(1.0/{1 - G0.333})

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Rheology
Mitchell (quality from 0 to 54%)

mf = m(1.0+3.6G)
Mitchell (quality from 54% to 100%)

mf = m(1.0/{1 - G0.49})
Mitchell also assumed Bingham Plastic behavior.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Rheology
20 2.5 18 16

Yield stress in normally expressed in units of lbf/100sf

Foam Viscosity ( c P)

14

12

1.5

10 1

6 0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Foam Quality (fractional)

Plastic viscosity and yield point of foam as functions of foam quality (after Mitchell, 19716).
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Foam Yield Stress (psf)

Rheology
Plastic Viscosity and Yield Strength of Foam(Krug,1971)

Quality
0 0-25 25-30 30-35 35-45 45-55 55-60 60-65 65-70

Plastic
1.02 1.25 1.58 1.60 2.40 2.88 3.36 3.70 4.30

Yield Strength
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 23

70-75
75-80 80-86 86-90 90-96

5.00
5.76 7.21 9.58 14.38

40
48 68 100 250

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Rheology
Power- Law Fluid Properties of Foam
Foam Quality,
Percent Gas by Volume
65-69 69-71 72-73 74-76 77-78 79-81

Consistency Index,

k
2.766 2.777 2.8716 2.916 3.343 3.635

Flow Behavior Index,

0.290 0.295 0.293 0.295 0.273 0.262

84-86
89-91 91-92 94-96 96-97.7

4.956
5.647 6.155 3.325 2.566
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

0.214
0.200 0.187 0.290 0.326

Rheology
80 Quality Foam
1000

Effective Viscosity (cP)

100

10

10

100

1000

10000

Shear Rate (s-1)


Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Rheology
90 Quality Foam
10000

Effective Viscosity (cP)

1000

100

10

10

100

1000

10000

Shear Rate (s-1)


Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Rheology
95 Quality Foam
10000

Effective Viscosity (cP)

1000

100

10

1 1 10 100 1000 10000

Shear Rate (s-1)


Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Rheology - Stiff Foam


10000

Apparent Pipe viscosity (cP)

1000

100

10 10

100

1000

10000

Shear Rate (s-1) Effective viscosity of stiffened nitrogen-based fracturing foam, 80 and 90 quality (after Reidenbach et al., 19866)
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Rheology
The

particular rheological model to use may depend on the application of the fluid. One argument is that the closer the fluid is to be a pure liquid system (low foam qualities) the more likely is that the fluid will act like a Bingham Plastic.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Rheology
Empirical evidence shows that:
In laminar flow the fluid acts more like a Bingham Plastic. While in turbulent flow the fluid acts more like a Power Law Fluid.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Cuttings Transport
1 0.9

Relative Lifting Force

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Relative Velocity 2

Relative Velocity 1

Liquid Volume Fraction Lifting forces acting on a 0.1875-inch diameter sphere for different quality foams (after Beyer et al., 19724)
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Cuttings Transport (Moore)


In laminar flow:
Vt = 4,980 dc2

c-f

In transitional flow:

(c-f)2/3 Vt = 175dc (f e)1/3


Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Cuttings Transport (Moore)


In fully turbulent flow:

Vt = 92.6

dc c - f

(2.54)

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Cuttings Transport
Where:
Vt Dc terminal velocity of a cutting (ft/min.) the cuttings diameter (inches).

c
f

the cuttings density (ppg).


the drilling fluids density (ppg).

the fluids effective viscosity at the rate flowing up the annulus (cP).
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Cuttings Transport
A cuttings Reynolds number, NRec can be expressed as:

NRec =

15.47fvtdc

Theoretically, flow past the cutting will be Laminar if NRec < 1 Transitional if 1 < NRec < 2,000 Turbulent if NRec > 2,000.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Cuttings Transport
If

flow is laminar, an increase in foam viscosity with increasing quality will dominate the reduction in foam density, and the terminal velocity will decrease with increasing foam quality, until the foam breaks down into mist.

Vt = 4,980 dc2

c - f

Laminar flow
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Cuttings Transport
If

the flow is turbulent, the terminal velocity is independent of the foams viscosity. The terminal velocity will increase with increasing foam quality due to reduction in density. In fully turbulent flow:
Fully turbulent flow

Vt = 92.6

dc c - f

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Cuttings Transport
For

typical foam drilling conditions, flow past a 1/2 diameter cutting in a 60 quality foam at nearly 10,000 was transitional. The terminal velocity was computed to be ~60 feet per minute. In transitional flow:
Transitional flow

(c-f)2/3 Vt = 175dc (f e)1/3


Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Cuttings Transport
In transitional flow, the terminal velocity is sensitive to the density difference between the cutting and the foam, as well as the effective viscosity of the foam. This is probably why foam does not show as much increase in cuttings transport capacity (over water) as might be expected from its viscosity.

Transitional flow

(c-f)2/3 Vt = 175dc (f e)1/3


Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
Strongly

quality. Both viscosity and quality change with changing pressure.

influenced by viscosity and

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
500 100/40 400 Foam Gas/Liquid Rates (scfm/gpm) 400/40 100/10 400/10 100 Well Productivity 0 0 5

Bottomhole Pressure (psi)

300

200

Formation Fluid Influx (BWPH)

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Predicted influence of water inflow on bottomhole pressure (after Millhone et al., 1972 24)
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
1200
Air Volume Rate (scfm) and Water Rate (gpm) 1050 900 750 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 12000

600
450 300 150

0
0 2000 4000

Depth (feet)

6000

8000

10000

Recommended air and liquid injection rates and predicted injection pressures for foam drilling (after Krug amd Mitchel, 197219); no inflow continued
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Injection Pressure (psi)

Circulating Pressures
Mud Injection Rates (gpm)
18
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Hole Diameter (Inches)

17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
50 75 100 125 160 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450

Air Injection Rates (cfm) Suggested air and liquid (mud) injection rates for stiff foam drilling (after Garavini et al., 19717)
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
5000 4500

Bottomhole Pressure (psi)

4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

Depth (feet) Predicted bottomhole pressures during foam drilling, no inflow (after Krug and Mitchell, 197219).

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
Power-Law Fluid Model Pressures

Guo et al. (1995) set out a procedure that can be used to calculate BHP generated by foam systems in a multi-step process. This procedure assumes the fluid behavior the Power-Law model.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
1.Determine the desired foam velocity and foam quality at the bottom of the hole. Calculate the corresponding volumetric flow rate of gas and liquid (e. g., the volumetric flow of gas is simply the local flow rate multiplied by the fractional foam quality) at the hole bottom, Qgbh and Qlbh respectively, in ft3/sec.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
2. After specifying a desired foam quality at the surface in the annulus (usually 95-96%), calculate the required ratio of bottomhole to surface using the equation:

Pbh/Ps=(zbhTbhs{1-bh})/(ZsTsbh{1-s})
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
Where: P = pressure, lbf/ft2
z = dimensionless gas compressibility factor. T = absolute temperature, 0R = foam quality fraction.
The subscripts bh and s refer to bottomhole conditions and surface conditions, respectively.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
3. Calculate the surface annular pressure using the equation:
Ps= (l)(Dv)/[(Pbh/Ps)+(s/{1-s}) *
...ln(Pbh/Ps)-{sDv/(R`ZavTav[1-s])}-1]

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
Where:

l = density of the liquid phase, lbm/ft3.


Dv = true vertical depth at the bottomhole location, ft.

R` = universal gas constant, Rg/(Molecular weight)air , lbm/lbmmol, Rg is 1,545 lbfft/lbmmol0R and R`= 53.3 for air.
The subscript av refers to average condition.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
4. Calculate the bottomhole pressure using the equation:

Pbh = Ps(Pbh/Ps)
Where: All factors were defined earlier.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
5. Calculate foam density at bottomhole conditions using: (fbh) = (1-bh)l+gbhbh

Where: fbh = density of foam at

bottomhole, lbm/ft3.

gbh = density of gas at bottomhole, lbm/ft3. gbh = Phb/R`ZbhTbh


Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
6. Calculate the mass low rate of foam using: Mf , lbm/ sec = f Qf

Where:
Qf = volumetric flow rate of foam, ft3/sec.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
7. Average foam density can then be calculated using:

fav = Pbh/Dv
8. The average foam velocity will be:
vfav , ft/sec = Mf/Aa fav

Where: Aa = cross-sectional area of the annulus, ft2.


Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
9. Then the average foam quality can be determined using:

av = (l fav) / (l gav)
Where:

gav = Pav / (R`ZavTav)


Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
10.Table 3-4-3 (UDOM-Signa), can be used to determine the consistency index, k , and the flow behavior index, n, based on the average foam quality from Step 9.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
11. The effective foam quality can then
be estimated based on average conditions, according to Moore (1974) using the following equation:

e = K ({2n+1}/3n)n(12vfav/{D-d})n-1
Where: D = wellbore diameter, ft. d = drillpipe diameter, ft.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
12. Calculate the Reynolds number using: Re = vfav (D-d)fav /e 13. Then calculate the friction factor with:

f = 24 / Re
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
14. The pressure loss due to friction can then be calculated using; Pf = 2fvfav favLh/(gc{D-d}) Where: Lh = length of the hole, ft. gc = gravity, 32,174 lbmft/lbf sec2
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
15. The total BHP can then be update (pbhu) by adding the friction pressure loss to the hydrostatic BHP determined in Step 4 above: Pbhu = Pbh+ Pf

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Circulating Pressures
16. The surface pressure can then be update (Psu) using the equation from step 4 above: Psu = Pbhu( Pbh/Ps) 17. Repeat Steps 7 through 16 until the update BHP nearly equals the beginning BHP.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Injection Rates
Power-Law Model Fluid Injection Rate

Guo et al. not only developed a simple method of determining the bottomhole and surface annular pressures with a foam system, they also described how to continue using the technique to determine flow rates, or injection rates of the gas and liquid phases of the foam.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Injection Rates

Finally, they described the use of the technique to ensure the cuttings are being carried out of the hole adequately.

Guo et al. carried their process through four additional steps that continue from the process described above. The remaining steps for a Power-Law model fluid are:
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Injection Rates
18. Using the BHP calculated with the Guo et al. method, Pbh, and the gas flow rate estimated in Step 1 above using the desired foam quality, Qghb, calculate the gas flow rate at the surface using the equation:

Qgs = (Pbh/Pa)(Ta/Tbh)(Qgbh/Zbh)
Where: Pa = ambient pressure, lbf/ft2 Ta = ambient temperature, 0R
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Injection Rates
19.Determine desired trouble-free cuttings concentration at the surface, Cd, (usually 4-6%), and use it to calculate the required cuttings transport velocity, Vtr, in ft/sec, similar to the method described in the section on gasified fluids.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Injection Rates

This transport velocity should be calculated at a critical point in the wellbore, most likely at the top of the collars.
This will necessitate calculating the annular pressure at the critical point using the technique described above for BHP.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Injection Rates

The following equation can then be use to calculate transport velocity at the critical point:
Vtr=(ROP/Cd)(Zcr/Zd)(Tcr/Td)*.. (d/cr)(Pd/Pcr)
Where: ROP = rate of penetration, ft/sec.

The subscripts cr and d refer to the critical point and the cuttings delivery point (usually the surface), respectively.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Injection Rates

Also note that the pressure, foam quality, foam density, and foam velocity must be calculated at the critical point using Steps 7 through 16 in section Power-Law Fluid Model Pressures.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Injection Rates
20.The cuttings terminal settling velocity must then be determined, based on the particle Reynolds Number, calculated using:

Rep = (f dcVts)/e
Where: f = density of foam, lbm/ft3 dc = diameter of a single cutting, ft

e = effective viscosity of foam, lbm/ft-sec


Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Injection Rates

The particular equation for the terminal cuttings velocity, Vts, is determined by the flow regime of the fluid. The fluid will either be in viscous flow (Rep<1), transition flow (1<Rep<2,000), or turbulent flow (Rep>2,000).

The equations for Vts are described in more detail in Section Cuttings Transport.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Injection Rates

Note that in the previous section referenced here, the methods were those described by Bourgoyne et al., and the ranges for viscous, transition, and turbulent flow were slightly different. Also, in the earlier section the terminal settling velocity, Vts was referred to as the slip velocity, Vsl
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Injection Rates
21.The minimum foam velocity required to lift the given cutting size can then be calculated using:

Vf , ft/sec = (Vtr+ Vts)


Where is a correction factor for wellbore inclination. When the wellbore is vertical, is 1.0; when the wellbore is horizontal, is 2.0
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Injection Rates
22.The final step is to compare the velocity calculated in Step 21 with the velocity assumed and specific originally in the calculation of the BHP (step 1 under Power-Law Fluid Model Pressures). If the calculated required foam velocity is less than the velocity assumed and specific above, then the hole is being cleaned.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Injection Rates

Otherwise, the hole will not be cleaned. A higher value will need to be specified in step 1 above, and the entire procedure will need to be repeated.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Limitations of Foam Drilling


Corrosion

gas. Saline formation waters increase corrosion. H2S or CO2 in the formation increases corrosion. Wellbore instability.
Mechanical Chemical

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

when air is used as the

Homework # 2
Using

the graphical method determine: BHP Air injection rate Water injection rate Injection pressure For the well in Homework # 1.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering

Homework # 2, cont.
Repeat

using the 22 step process described in handout (and this presentation).

Due

October 6, 2000
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering