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Rajasthan Shiksha Karmi ProjectA case study.

1.A Birds eyeview of Education System in India. The Policy Framework. The Education Admn Structure in India. Challenges to Elementary Education. 2.The Education Scenario in Rajasthan. The State of Rajasthan. Management System for Primary Education.

Challenges to Primary Education in Rajasthan. 3.Rajasthan Shiksha Karmi Project. The concept of Shiksha Karmi. Strategic Intent of SKP. Goals/Objectives of SKP. Business Definition. Business Model. Stake holders.

4.External and Internal Environment of SKP. Distinctive features of External Environment. Distinctive Features of Internal Environment. 5.Strategic Management of SKP. Strategy Formulation. Strategy Implementation. Strategy Evaluation and Control . 6. The Road Ahead.

A Birds Eyeview of Education System in India

Large number of government and private schools came up in 1960s. Perception grew that government schools are for the poor and private school for better off families. From 1970s to 1990s govt policies on education was to get children to schools and make them stay there. The gross enrollment ratio became the favourite measure of effectiveness of govt educational program.

The Policy Framework

The constitution designated elementary education as a state subject but later amended to both Central and State. National Policy on education in 1968, 1986. Free and Compulsory education a fundamental right for children-amendment in 1992. Empasis on 3 aspects: 1.Universal access and enrollment. 2.Universal retention upto 14 years of age. 3.Improvement in Quality of education.

Managed by the Ministry of HRD. 2 Departments i.e School Education and Literacy and Dept of Higher Education each headed by a Minister of State. The Administrative matters are looked after by a Secretary-IAS level. The Central Advisory Body of Education is the highest Advisory Body. At the state level state departments or secretariats of education support state ministers of education. The District Educational Officer is responsible for implementing and supervising elementary education. Local Elected Bodies at District,Block and Village levels.

The Education Administration Structure in India

Challenges to Elementary Education

The Educational System is divided into elementary,secondary,higher,technical and higher, technical and adult education. Each sector has its own unique challenges and problems. The elementary section is plagued by low number of schools,lack of adequate facilities,high drop out rates,lack of motivation among teachers and high rate of absenteeism,inadequate supervision by education bureaucracy,politicisation and low quality. The Policy initiatives are implemented through various programmes such as Operation Blackboard (1987),District Primary Education Project (1993),National Literacy Mission (2001).

The Educational Scenario in Rajasthan

Geographical area 342239 Population 5.65 crore. Gender ratio 921 female to 1000 male. 222 cities,41000 villages,33 administrative districts. Population predominately Hindus divided into castes such as Bhramins,Vaishyas,Rajputs,Jats,Gurjars,tribes such as Meena,Bhil,Garasia,Sansi and Kanjar. Rich and colorful history. An Agricultural and Pastoral Economy. Rich Mineral Resources. Yet the state is termed as Bimaru State.

Management System of Primary Education

The state formed in 1949. The Directorate of primary and secondary education established in 1950 in Bikaner. Bifurcated into primary and secondary education in 1997. Due to the Panchayati Raj system estalished in 1959,The management of primary education was decentralised into district level and block level. There are Directorate of Elementary Education at Bikaner Directorate of Literarcy and Continuing Education in Jaipur.

The main challenges are lack of political commitment,insuffient infrastructure,low quality and stifling bureaucracy. In addition there are inhospitable ecological and physical environment with extremes weather,deeply embedded attitude to education-especially the girl child,transfer of school teachers by political establishments. Despite formidable challenges,Rajasthan has made impressive strides in primary education. Between 1991 and 2001 the literacy rate rose from 38.6 % to 61.03%. Males literacy rates moved from 55% to 76% and female rates from 20.44% to 44.34%. The Shiksha Karmi Project is offering an Alternative model to the elementary and primary education for the state.

Challenges of Primary Education in Rajasthan

Rajasthan Shiksha Karmi Project

The Shiksha Karmi is not an School Teacher in the normal sense. She or He has lower formal educational qualifications.They are intensively trained for a few months,named as Parateachers and sent to backward villages of Rajasthan. They are paid lesser salaries. The strategic intent is to universalise and qualitatively improve the education in backward villages of Rajasthan.

Goals/Objectives of SKP.
The objective is to provide quality basic education with emphasis on girls,scheduled castes and tribes and other marginalised groups. This is achieved by achieving tertiary objectives i.e Tackling teacher absenteeism. Poor enrollment. High drop-out rates. More access to education. Developing and training local shiksha karmis acceptable to the village community. Putting in place an extensive system at the village,block,regional and state levels to provide training,support,guidance and accountability.

Business Definition
3 elements of Customer groups,Customer needs and Technologies used. Customer Groups:Children of 6 to 14 years in remote socio-economically backward regions of Rajasthan. Customer Needs:Education at Primary level. Technologies: Instructions provided by Shikshakarmi teachers based on a curriculam derived out of local needs.

Business Model-Prevalent
Prevalent Business Model: Configuration of resources including the teaching staff,class rooms,books,other teaching materials and Administrative resources to fund and manage these resources. The effectiveness decided by end of term examinations. Delivery is face- to-face situation and one-way communication. Uninspiring atmosphere.

SKP Business Model

SKP Business Model Approach: Teachers are not appointed through a centralised,directive,bureaucratic and a process ridden with delays ,nepotism and corruption. Less qualified, locally available, aware and embedded to local conditions and approved by village local Panchayats and acceptable to village community. The teachers stay where they have to teach and reduce absenteesm. More joyful and inspiring classroom atmosphere. Learning is more relevant to their day- today-needs.

The most significant stakeholders are the children between the age of 6 to 14 years. Shiksha Karmis. The Village community,The Village Education Committee,The Gram Panchayat. Panchayat Samitis,Shiksha Karmi sahayogis. Subject Specialists of NGOS. Shiksha Karmi Board. The State and National Governments and their Agencies. DONORS. Monitoring Agencies. The larger canvas have the Media,General Public,Local and State Politicians.


Primary education system in Rajasthan exists in an interesting amalgam of wide range of factors. Rajastan like any other parts of India is a Region of sharp contrasts. Home of largest Business Houses and the poorest hamlets in the arid regions of Thar desert. Prosperous farmers in Sriganganagar and subsistence farmers in Dholpur. Heavy dependence on agriculture and animal husbandry.

External and Internal Environment of SKP-Features of External Environment

Features of External Environment

Significant shift to sectors such as mining,quarrying,constuction and manufacturing. Tourism is a significant industry. Weak infrastructure. Unemployment,underemployment and poverty are higher than national averages. The unsatisfactory economic development has a negative impact in children especially girls.

Features of External Environment

2 party political system. Policies regarding education are forward looking, but bureaucratic control is strong and stifling. Harmonious social relationships between different religions and castes. Underprivilged castes.Population growth rates is high. Growth in labour forces outpaces employment generation.

Features of External Environment

Education a top priority for middle and higher income groups. The major chunk remains immune to developments in the fields of education. Overall the external environment in primary education is characterised by: Dominance of Government sector. Booming private sector. Growing Public-Private partnership. Commendable roles played by NGOS,Enthusiastic Bureaucrats. Plus a lot of political rhetoric, grandoise schemes and unfufilled dreams.

Different classification of Schools i.e Central govt schools,State Govt schools,Panchayat/Muncipal schools,special schools like military schools,schools for physically handicapped children,art,dance schools etc. Aided,Partly-aided,non-aided schools. Private,Academic trust,Corporate bodies,academic and social enterprenures. Boys,girls,mixed . Part-time,mobile . Value chain system in schools is similar.

Features of Internal Environment

Value Chain Framework-SKP

Primary activities: Student body from the area:Enrollment,Curriculam,Learning output,Evaluation/Reevaluation,Upgrade, Enrollment in formal primary education system. Teacher as Teacher: Classroom teaching,evaluation and Testing. Teacher as Staff: Administration,Performance,Performance evaluation,remuneration,transfer/promotions Retirement,post-retirement.

Value Chain Framework-SKP

Support Activities: Infrastructure: Funding,School Administration,Headmaster/Principal,Parent involvement,Physical assets-building,electricity,drinking water,partnerships. Human resource Management: Teacher recruitment and selection,remuneration,training,performance evaluation,transfers and promotion,motivation,incentive,reward systems. Procurement: Physical assets,Consumables etc. Technological Development: Teaching Methodology,Equipments,Computer support.

Strategic Formulation-SKP
To create a non-formal system of delivery of education through collaborative partnership through Change agent i.e Shiksha Karmiidentified by the local community he/she is required to work in remote regions. The social groups are the disadvantaged sections. Low-cost approach with modest infrastructure. Collaborative network of participants. Overall, the strategy is delivery of low-cost education by shiksha-karmi through concentration in terms of geography and social groups through cooperative efforts.

Strategic Implementation-SKP
Activating Strategies: Creating Projects,Programs,Plans,Schemes,Procedures etc.Also Resource allocation and devolution of authority to spend from the Donors,Central and State down to the grass roots level. Managing Changes: Raising consciousness in society about value of education in human development. Changing attitude of villagers especially among the political,religious leaders and village elders. Bringing big changes in the attitude of bureaucracy as well as local functionaries.

Strategic Implementation-SKP
Effectiveness: Measured in terms of parameters such as identification,recruitment,selection and training of Shikshakarmis,enrollment of children,drop-out rates,enhancement of joyful learning,relevance of curriculam to local needs. The Administrative structure,Information control and Reward system: Were an amalgam of legitimacy of government and vibrancy of voluntary organisations.

Strategic Implementation-SKP
The grass roots implementation of SKP took place through Prehar Pathasala(School of Convenient timings),Angan Pathasala(Courtyard schools),Mahila Prashikshan Kendra(Training centers for women). Functional and operational implementation rested on the focal point of Shiksha karmi. This involves: 1. 6-week residential induction training using discussions,exercises,songs,role-play etc. 30 day training program in the first 2years. 20 days training program every year subsequently.

Strategy Evaluation and Control

Control based on elaborate monitoring structure built into the program. Operated at village,block,headquarters and state levels. Joint biannual reviews by donor agency,govt of India and govt of Rajasthan. Independent evaluation by national and international experts. Evaluation through interaction with all functionaries and beneficiaries. Grass root monitoring by Shiksha Karmis on monthly basis. Performance standards are not set in numerical terms but indicative only.

Summary and the Road ahead

Learning should be sustainable for the children to grow up as responsible adults. No proper infrastructure for secondary education for those who have done the primary education. Total absence of Corporate participation. They do not seem to have a strategy for the bottom-ofthe-pyramid in primary education. The quality of education remains abysmal,retention of students a serious problem,gender disparities though reducing but no end in sight. The quality of teachers need regular upgradation. The struggle against ignorance and poverty goes on---.

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This is a summary of a case study taken from the book Strategic Management and Business Policy by Mr Azhar Kazmi. Please maintain this structure and format in your case studies.Minor deviations however are allowed. Please prepare a case study and present the same on 27th Feb 14. ALL THE BEST.