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CHAPTER TWO

PERSONALITY

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 Q: What is Personality?

 A: are all people the same?

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PERSONALITY-DEFINITION

a. Salvatore Maddi
Personality is a stable set of characteristics
and tendencies that determine those
commonalties and differences in the
psychological behaviour (thoughts, feelings
and actions) of people that have continuity in
time and that may not be easily understood as
the sole result of the social and biological
pressures of the moment.

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PERSONALITY-DEFINITION
(Contd.)
b. Gordon Allport
Personality is the dynamic
organization within the individual
of those psychophysical systems
that determines his unique
adjustment to his environment.

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PERSONALITY-DEFINITION
(Contd.)
c. R.T. Hogan
Personality refers to the relatively
stable pattern of behaviours and
consistent internal states that
explains a persons behavioural
tendencies.

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PERSONALITY-DEFINITION
(Contd.)
d. Stephen Robbins
Personality is the sum total of
ways in which an individual reacts
and interacts with others.

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PERSONALITY
DETERMINANTS

 HEREDITY Vs. ENVIRONMENT


 NATURE Vs. NUTURE
 Also- SITUATION

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PERSONALITY AND OB

 Personality and performance

 Personality and work behaviour

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MAJOR PERSONALITY
ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING
1.
OB
Type A Behaviour
2. Authoritarianism
3. Bureaucratic
4. Machiavellianism
5. Locus of control
6. Goal orientation

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1. TYPE A BEHAVIOUR

 Restless, Impatient,
 Does several things at once,
 Starts another before completing one,
 Schedules too many work in less time,
 Has no time to relax and enjoy
 Is stress prone

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2. AUTHORITARIANISM

 Blind acceptance of authority


 Conservation, strong parental
control
 Make good followers
 Dogmatic

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3. BUREAUCRATIC

 Respect for authority not totally


blind
 Rule bound; do not take risks
 Better supervisors in routine,
repetitive, proceduralised work.

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4. MACHIAVELLIANISM

 Cool, calculating
 Use others to serve their own goals
 Do not hesitate to lie
 Not swayed by friendship, trust,
loyalty.
 Exploit vulnerable people
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5. LOCUS OF CONTROL

Extent to which individuals believe


 they control their own lives
(internals)
 external factors control their
lives(external)

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6. GOAL ORIENTATION

Goal orientation Predisposition to


Learning -develop new skills and mastering
new situations.
Performance -demonstrate and validate
competence by seeking favourable
judgemet from others and avoiding
negative judgements.

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PERSONALITY THEORIES
1. PSYCHO ANALYTICAL
THEORY
Freud-unconscious nature of
personality psycho analytical
concepts:
Id- reservoir of thoughts, biological
pleasures
Ego- conscious in nature
Super ego- higher level of restraining
force
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2. TRAIT THEORIES

Visualises personality as a reflection


of certain traits of the individual
 Many traits are common to most
people
 Some traits are unique to some
people

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3. SELF CONCEPT THEORY

 Personality and behaviour are


largely determined by the
individual himself.
 We act in ways consistent with our
image

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4. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY

 Personality more a result of social


variables rather than biological
drives.
 Motives can be traced to known and
conscious needs rather than
unconscious desires
 Learning by observation of others
rather than interaction
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OTHER SIGNIFICANT
PERSONALITY CONCEPTS

 Risk taking propensity


 Self monitoring
 Self esteem

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PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS-
PERSONALITY TRAITS
 Personality traits are enduring characteristics
that describe an individual’s behaviour.
 Early research identified- 17,953 traits
 R.B. Cattell reduced it to- 171 traits.
 He further reduced it to-16 primary traits

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Cattell 16 PF

1. Reserved Vs. Outgoing


2. Less intelligent Vs. More intelligent
3. Affected by feeling Vs. Emotionally
stable
4. Submissive Vs. Dominant
5. Serious Va. Happy go lucky
6. Expedient vs. Conscientious

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Cattell 16 PF (Contd.)

7. Timid Vs Venturesome
8. Tough minded Vs. Sensitive
9. Trusting Vs Suspicious
10.Practical Vs Imaginative
11. Forthright Vs Shrewd

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Cattell 16 PF (Contd.)

12. Self assured Vs. Apprehensive


13. Conservative Vs. Experimenting
14. Group dependant Vs. Self sufficient
15. Uncontrolled Vs. Controlled
16. Relaxed Vs. Tense

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MYERS & BRIGS TYPE
INDICATORS(MBIT)

1. E or I- Extroversion or
Introversion
2. S or N- Sensing or Intuitive
3. T or F- Thinking or Feeling
4. J or P- Judging or Perceiving

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 ESTJ- Corporate executives, organizers
 ENTJ- Natural Leaders
 ISFJ- Have high sense of duty
 INTJ- Visionaries
 ENTP-Conceptualisers

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BIG FIVE PERSONALITY
FACTORS- FACTOR 1
HIGH CONSCIENTIOUSNESS LOW
FOCUSSED BALANCED FLEXIBLE

Stable, measures of Impulsive,


Confident, reliability Irresponsible
Careful, Distracted,
Organized, Disorganized,
Dependable Unreliable,
Persistent, Spontaneous,
Cautious, Fun loving,
Stubborn. Experimental.

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FACTOR 2

HIGH EMOTIONAL STABILITY LOW


RESILIENT (ADJUSTMENT) REACTIVE
RESPONSIVE

Relaxed, measures of persons Depressed,


Secure, ability to with Anxious,
Calm, stand stress Indecisive,
Poised, Have mood swings,
Unflappable,
Insecure,
Guilt free, Excitable,
Worrying,
High strung.

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FACTOR 3

HIGH OPENESS TO EXPERIENCE LOW


Explorer MODERATE PRESERVER

Creative, measures anPractical,


Curious, individuals range Conservative,
Artistically of interests Efficient,
sensitive, fascination to Expert,
Broad interests, novelty Conventional,
Impractical. Finds comfort in
familiar.

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FACTOR 4

HIGH AGREEABLENESS LOW


ADAPTER NEGOTIATOR CHALLENGER
Courteous, measures Uncooperative,
Good-natured, individuals Short tempered,
Empathic, propensity to Irritable,
Caring , defer to Cold,
Warm, others Rude.
Tactful,
Considerate.

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FACTOR 5

HIGH SOCIABILITY LOW


EXTROVERT AMBIVERT INTROVERT
Assertive, measures Private,
Sociable, one’s comfort Independent,
Warm, level with Works alone,
Optimistic, relationships Reserved,
Talkative, Timid,
Outgoing. Quiet,
Hard to read.

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HOLLANDS TYPOLOGY OF
PERSONALITY AND CONGRUENT
OCCUPATIONS
TYPE PERSONALITY CONGRUENT
(Prefers Activities) CHARACTERISTIC OCCUPATION
1. Realistic: Shy, genuine, stable Mechanic,
Skill, Strength Persistent, confirming farmer, Drill Press
& coordination. practical. operator, assembly
line worker.
2. Investigative: Analytical, original Biologist, Economist,
Thinking, organizing Curious, Mathematician,
& understanding. independent. News Reporter.
3). Social: Sociable, friendly Social worker,
Helping & developing cooperative, Teacher, Counsellor,
Others. Understanding. Clinical psychologist.

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HOLLANDS TYPOLOGY
(Contd.)
TYPE PERSONALITY CONGRUENT
(Prefers Activities) CHARACTERISTIC OCCUPATION
4. Conventional: Conforming, efficient, Accountant
rule regulated, Orderly practical, unimaginative, Corporate manager
unambiguous. in flexible. , Bank Teller, File clerk.

5.Enterprising: self confident Lawyer, Real estate


Opportunities to ambitious, energetic agent, Public relations
Influence others & domineering. & specialist,
And attain power small-business manager.

6. Artistic: Imaginative, Partner,


Ambiguous& disorderly, Musician,
Unsystematic that idealistic, Writer,
allow creative emotional, Interior decorator.
expression. Impractical.

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CONCLUSION

 Personality and job, occupation and


organization fit.
 Know your associates personality to
function better.
 Know your personality for self
development.

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