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Geographical Information System

Geographical Information System

o A set of tools for Collecting Storing Retrieving Transforming and Display Of Spatial Data from the Real World

What is a GIS?
GEOGRAPH C implies that locations of the data items are !no"n# or can $e calc%lated# in terms of Geographic coordinates &'atit%de# 'ongit%de( )*OR+AT O) implies that the data in a G S are organi,ed to yield %sef%l !no"ledge# often as colored maps and images# $%t also as statistical graphics# ta$les# and vario%s onscreen responses to interactive .%eries/

S0STE+ implies that a G S is made %p from several inter-related and lin!ed components "ith different f%nctions/ Th%s# G S have f%nctional capa$ilities for data capt%re# inp%t# manip%lation# transformation# vis%ali,ation# com$inations# .%ery# analysis# modelling and o%tp%t/

o 1se of

Introductio n nformation Technology has ena$led a

ne" dimension in the day-to-day f%nctioning of h%man life in the ne" +illenni%m/

o Planning is the $asis for Development# "hich

has a m%ltiple effect on the %tili,ation of all the reso%rces and infrastr%ct%re facilities/

o +a!ing the Governmental $odies effective#

needs a tool or technology to ena$le and sensiti,e the managers or administrators at different levels/

o G S & Geographical nformation Systems(

is one s%ch famo%s T application tool "hich can provide $est decision s%pport to $ridge the gap $et"een the re.%irements and the reality/

o With the e2ponential gro"th in T application and the digital literacy all over the "orld# and G S $eing the most advantageo%s vis%al dimension of data $ase# the potential for G S application is %nlimited /

o Real

Remote Sensing information of geography

at real times

thro%gh Satellites/ oStarted in 34567s "ith the prime o$8ective of o$taining nformation a$o%t )at%ral Reso%rces/ o'A)DSAT 9 3:/; "as the first Satellite series la%nched in the World $y E%ropian Co%ntries/ o ndian Space Programme &Dept/ of Space( "as set %p in 345</

o RS - C # RS - D and RS - P= are the latest and c%rrently %sed ndian Remote Sensing Satellites / oThe ma2im%m resol%tion availa$le from RS data is >/? meters/ o @O)OS data- 3 metre resol%tion oDigital Glo$e- 6/> metres resol%tion

A picture is worth a thousand Words.

o Aision is the most advanced of h%man senses so it is nat%ral that images play most important role in h%man perception/ o mprovement of pictorial information for h%man interpretation/ o Ease of storage transmission and representation for machineBh%man perception/

Digital Image
o A digital image is o$tained after digitization o Sampling C D%anti,ation Digiti,ation
o Sampling E Spatial sampling o Quantization E finite precision representation of intensity val%es

o Each sample is called a pixel &pict%re element(

Image A rectangular array of pixel

Visual Image Interpretation

Advantages :o H%man @no"ledge and E2perience o Parallel Processing o +inim%m reso%rces re.%ired

Disadvantages :o o o o o S%$8ective nefficient in storage and transmission )o enhancements or image manip%lations )o direct %se in G S Only fi2ed $and com$ination

Advantages :o o o o o o o

Digital Image Processing

O$8ective Easy in storage and transmission Direct %se in G S Enhancements and image manip%lations Aario%s $and com$inations for +S sensors Efficient to detect tonal variations Good for large area mapping

Disadvantages:o Diffic%lt to implement H%man E2pertise o 'ot of reso%rces re.%ired

Important Terms
o o o o o Pi2el to Gro%nd Resol%tion +%lti-Spectral mage +%lti-Temporal mage Pse%do Colo%r mage Tr%e F *alse Colo%r Composite

Spatial Resolutions

Sensor: WiFS Resolution:180m

Sensor: LISS-III Resolution: 24m

Sensor: LISS-IV Resolution:5m

Multi Spectral Data

R ! $R %



Multi Spectral Data

Multi Temporal Images 1999)




Pseudo Colour Image

False and True Color Composites

False &olour &omposite %IR Re( $reen

'rue &olour &omposite Re( $reen "lue

Data Fusion



,ig- Spatial resolution

,ig- Spe.tral resolution


+ R$ !

3/ Stands for Geographical nformation System </ s a decision ma!ing tool G/ Readily gives a spatial reference of data &'in!s data "ith the related area and th%s gives area specific details( =/ A soft"are tool "hich has all %tilities li!e search# analysis# reprod%ction etc/

GIS Areas
Geo Sciences Engineering Transportation )at%ral reso%rces Environment Planning Administration +anagement H%siness Remote Sensing mage processing 1r$%n F R%ral Development *loods # Disasters Oil e2ploration +ines S%rveys Watershed management To%rism Comm%nications


mage Processing
ERDAS ER +apper 'W S E)A PC ArcAie" image analysis T)T+ PS Ecognition

ArcAie" +ap nfo +GE Geomedia Geoconcept W )G S +icrostation A%toCAD

Major Services in RS & GIS


o o o o o o o

G S Application Soft"are development Remote Sensing Application Pro8ects Thematic +apping Digital mage Processing Services Engineering Application Soft"are sol%tions Data Conversions Complete G S mplementation Cons%ltation

Data Structure.
$IS $R*),I&
V &'/R CO-ORD )ATE S0STE+ R*S' R +AGE *L),* %#+ RI&


R +/' S %S ! S&*%% ! I++*$ S

What Data is in Your GIS?

o What feat%res do yo% mapI o What attri$%tes do yo% need to collect data onI o What attri$%te val%es can yo% give the attri$%teI

Maps And Map Elements

o +aps are graphic representation of o%r perception of the "orld aro%nd %s/ They represent cartographic interpretation and simplification of reality/ o +aps provide t"o types of information o 'ocational information o Spatial Relationships

Maps contains features such as Point, Line, Area and Surface

o +aps contain PO )T feat%res# ' )E feat%res and AREA feat%res o Point *eat%res J- "ells# control points# sample sites# fire stations o 'ine *eat%res J- roads# hydro lines# rivers# conto%r lines# o Area *eat%resJ-%r$an areas# "ater $odies# soilBroc! %nits# forest areas

Point Features
o Spatially distri$%ted entities# activities or events o Points have a single geographic coordinate s%ch asJ o Tree o Traffic accident o 'amp post

Line Features
o Spatially distri$%ted entities# activities or events o 'ines &Arcs( are a series of geographic coordinates 8oined to form a line s%ch asJ o Road o Stream o Rail"ay

Area Features
o Spatially distri$%ted entities# activities or o events o Areas &Polygons( are a series of geographic coordinates 8oined together to form a $o%ndary s%ch asJ o 'a!e o Soil types

10 20

S)*'I*L !*'* *''RI"#' !*'*


Raster Ve.tor

Data Model And Structure

R*S' R +/! L

V &'/R +/! L

Attribute Data
o Attri$%tes can $e n%meric or alfan%meric data that is assigned to a point# line or area spatial feat%res o E2ample Attri$%tes: Stand D# Compartment no#Aegetation type# )ame of the *orest Hloc!#Type of Road#ASS code etc/#

o Topology - mathematical representation of geographic feat%res&arcs# nodes# polygons and points( o When topology is $%ilt# it creates spatial relationship among the feat%res o Topology can $e very important for certain types of analysis/

Vector Data
o A vector system %s%ally stores data as coordinates/ o *or e2ample Each %niform area is s%rro%nded $y a set of straight line segments called vectors/ o n a vector $ased system every point is recorded $y a pair of 2 and 0 coordinates/ o Straight line segments called vectors are displayed to indicate line $ased data & roads rivers "ells( o The 2-y coordinates at the end of each vector can $e digitised and stored/ o +ost spatial feat%res can $e displayed asJ - Points'ine- Polygons

Raster Data
oA grid &or raster( system stores data as a string of characters in "hich each character represents a location/ oThe $asic data %nit is a cell or Pi2el oEach cellBPi2el is assigned only one val%e oAn array of Pi2els form the entity-Point# 'ine# Area and s%rface oThe shape and si,e of the array determines the $asic Resol%tion oPolygons can $e formed indicating areas of homogeneo%s characteristics

Why GIS ?
o To inventory and monitor reso%rces o To test the sensitivity of o%r analysis ass%mptions o To sim%late potential impacts of management alternatives o To ma!e the map the <nd time# the >6th time# the 366th time///

Uses of a GIS
o +apping geographical characteristics for analysis o +odeling alternative processes for management plans o +anaging a %tility7s assets o +onitoring changes in environmental factors

Measuring and Integrating the Parts...

So.ial Fa.tors "io(i1ersit2 ngineering Lan( #se n1ironmental &onsi(erations

3+eans Seeing t-e W-ole

GIS Integrates All the Partsto See the Whole!

Homes School Districts Streets Zip Codes Cities Counties

Thematic Overlay
10 '/)/$R*),4 20 "/#%!*RI S 50 VILL*$ S 40 R/*!S 50 !R*I%*$ 60 S/ILS

Thematic Overlay
VILL*$ S S'R L*7 S L*%! #S S/ILS L V*'I/% 'S

Query and Analysis

Data Output
8a-ira9a(( Sanga re((2

5 8 dentify villages "here pop%lation is K 3666 $%t no school
G villages of n%m$ers ?#>and G are having pop%lation more than 3666 and "ith o%t a school/ Report

Villages Pop%lation 8 4

6 5 6 4 5

2 1 : 2 :

Village "u;;er 5<m

Typical GIS Applications

o o o o o o o o o o Environmental Assessments 'and nformation System 'and 1se And Thematic +apping Health Care# Disease Profile *orestry And Wild 'ife Trac!ing Waste 'and Development Gro%nd Water Reso%rces +anagement 1r$an And To"n Planning Defence H%siness And Retails

Indispensability Of GIS
o Tho%gh collection of data is diffic%lt once it is collected# it can $e stored safely in digital form &in comp%ter( forever "itho%t damage# "hich %s%ally happens to o%r maps/ o Once if a map is prepared acc%rately it can $e printed in any scale "itho%t any redra"ing/ o 'arge scale maps at smaller %nits level can $e 8oined for creating maps at divisions or district level# very acc%rately "ithin fe" min%tes/

o Changes can $e incorporated very easily in comp%ter and it doesn7t re.%ire any redra"ing/ o Same map can $e generated even after 366s of years later/ o )e" things can $e !no"n after overlay of different themes and a ne" types of maps can $e generated/ o Wor! can $e done faster than man%ally/ o The "or! of decision ma!ers and end %sers "ill $ecome easier/

What is Photogrammetry?
o Photogrammetry is the art# science and technology of relia$le information a$o%t physical o$8ects and the environment thro%gh processes of recording# meas%ring and interpreting photographic images# patterns of electromagnetic radiant energy and other phenomenon o Photos E light o Gramma E something dra"n or "ritten o +etron E to meas%re

Scale variations with flying height

Sample Photographs

Terrestrial Photograph

Aertical Photograph