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Teaching Critical Thinking

How to Improve Students Active Learning

INTRODUCTION
THINKING SKILLS PROBLEM SOLVING

DECISION MAKING

Inquisitiveness & scepticism

CRITICAL THINKING

PASSIVE NOT CRITICAL

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
CTQL
FRAME WORK OF ANALYSIS

THINKING SKILLS

CRITICAL THINKING

EVALUATION OF THOUGHT

STATE OF DISEQUILLIBRIUM

RENOVATION of MENTAL STRUCTURE Decision making Problem solving Creativity

1982) • Berpikir kritis meningkatkan kemampuan untuk mengembangkan pengetahuan pada dunia nyata • (Lehman & Nisbett. et. 1986) • Ketrampilan berpikir meningkatkan kemampuan untuk mengevaluasi dan menyelesaikan konflik (Block. 1990) • Critical thinking improve the quality of Decision Making (Dewajani.al. 2000) .EMPIRICAL STUDIES • Ketrampilan berpikir meningkatkan kemampuan seseorang untuk membuat argumen(Hermstein. 1985) • Berpikir kritis meningkatkan kemampuan penyelesaian masalah ( Schoenfeld & Hermann..

afeksi dan psikomotor secara berhati-hati untuk mempertimbangkan suatu permasalahan sehingga penyelesaiannya dapat menjadi suatu pengetahuan .HASIL DISKUSI MAHASISWA • Proses berpikir yang melibatkan aspek kognitif.

serta evaluasi (Angelo. 1995) . pengenalan masalah dan penyelesaian masalah.What is Critical Thinking? • CT adalah penerapan pemikiran rasional dengan menggunakan higher order thinking skills seperti analisis. sintesis.

perilaku. Bukan aktivitas antisosial.What is Critical Thinking? • CT merupakan aktivitas produktif dan positif. 1987) . struktur sosial dan bentuk artisitik yang ada di dunia. CT adalah proses bukan hasil (Brookfield. Saat seseorang berpikir kritis dia akan sadar akan adanya perbedaan nilai.

SYARAT-SYARAT PEMIKIR KRITIS • • • • • • Mencari topik Memikirkan topik Mencari dan menggali informasi Bertanya mengenai informasi tersebut Mengorganisasikan (how…?) Menunjukkan atau mengungkapkan kembali .

SYARAT-SYARAT PEMIKIR KRITIS • • • • Memiliki pola pikir Berpikir efektif Open minded Berpikir secara objektif: fakta dan bukti/referensi .

Features of Critical Thinking • Skepticism • Questioning of assumptions of arguments • Operational definitions • Caution in using correlational evidence • Alternative interpretations • No oversimplification • No overgeneralization .

antara fakta dan penilaian Mengenali bahwa kata dan kalimat adalah suatu simbol ide. Aarons. 3. (per A. 1985) Secara sadar membuat pertanyaan Sadar akan adanya gap informasi yang muncul Mampu membedakan antara proses pengamatan dan pengambilan keputusan. 4.A List of Processes . bukan ide itu sendiri.1 1. . 2.

Menyadari penalaran yang dihasilkan .2 5. Secara tepat mengambil kesimpulan berdasarkan data 7.A List of Processes . Menguji hubungan penalaran yang muncul 9. Menggali asumsi-asumsi yang mungkin muncul 6. Melakukan penalaran yang bersifat hipotesis-deductif 8.

1 • Identifying key definitions • Identifying ambiguity • Identifying variables • Formulating questions • Defining issue or problem • Classifying information • Sequencing information • Recognizing patterns • Determining credibility • Distinguishing fact from opinion • Identifying assumptions • Identifying values • Noting missing evidence • Identifying relationships – Comparing & contrasting – Cause and effect • Summarizing information • Using analogies .Operational Procedures of Critical Thinking .

2 • Predicting trends from data • Predicting outcomes based upon evidence • Translating between verbal and symbolic • Identifying conclusions • Identifying errors in reasoning such as: – Logical fallacies – Errors in statistical reasoning – Alternative conclusions that satisfy evidence .Operational Procedures of Critical Thinking .

The Critical / Creative Thinking Bridge Application Comprehension Knowledge Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Decision Making Problem Solving Concept attainment .

Comparing Bloom’s Taxonomy to Critical Thinking Creative Thinking Synthesis Critical Thinking Evaluation Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge .

more visual. . more rational and analytical. (1992).Comparing Bloom’s Taxonomy to Critical Thinking Huitt’s (1992) classification of problem-solving techniques: • Critical thinking--linear and serial. W. 33-44. more structured. Journal of Psychological Type. more emotional and intuitive. Problem solving and decision making: Consideration of individual differences using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. more creative. and more goal-oriented • Creative thinking--holistic and parallel. and more tactual/ kinesthetic Huitt. 24.

). subjective Springer. S. objective • Right brain thinking--global. G. emotional.Comparing Bloom’s Taxonomy to Critical Thinking Springer & Deutsch’s (1993) classification of brain-lateralization dominance: • Left brain thinking--analytic. right brain (4th ed. parallel. logical. & Deutsch. Freeman and Co. New York: W. H. . serial.. (1993). Left brain.

What is CTQL • Question List that is developed from a generic Question and can stimutale the presence of certain thinking skills. such as :       Identification Comparison Analysis & Synthesis Evaluation Prediction Application .

.analogous to.........would see the issue of...be used to.......? What are the possible solution for..? How do you think.? What is..similar? What is the best..EXAMPLES OF CTQL GENERIC QUESTIONS What could ..? What would happen if..? What are the impliccation of..? How are the...and.and Why....? Thinking Skills Induced Application Prediction/Hypothesizing Analysis/Inference Identification Comparison Evaluation Synthesis Taking other perspectives ...

Characteristics of an Effective Critical Thinker • Mampu menanyakan pertanyaan secara kritis • Menilai pernyataan dan argumen • Mampu untuk mengakui kekurangan pemahaman ataupun informasi • Memiliki rasa keingin tahuan .

Characteristics of an Effective Critical Thinker • Mampu untuk menunjukkan secara jelas kriteria yang digunakan untuk menganalisa ide • Mau untuk menguji keyakinan. asumsi dan opini serta menimbang fakta yang ada • Selalu mencari bukti • Menguji permasalahan secara detail .

Characteristics of an Effective Critical Thinker • Mampu mendengar secara kritis perndapat orang lain serta memberi feedback • Mampu menunda penilaian sampai fakta yang benar diperoleh dan dipertimbangkan .

Challenges and Barriers to Teaching CT • • • • Takut salah Impulsiveness Overdependence on the teacher Missing the meaning .

1986) . et al. inflexibility Lack of confidence Dogmatic. assertive behavior Inability to concentrate Unwillingness to think (Raths..Challenges and Barriers to Teaching CT • • • • • Rigidity.

2002) .Teaching Critical Thinking • Working Model of Thinking Process – Description – Selection – Representation – Inference – Synthesis – Verification (Donald.

Teaching CT: Reflective Thinking Model • • • • • Define the Problem Analyze the Problem Establish Criteria for Solutions Generate Possible Solutions Select the Best Solution (Dewey. 1910) .

Teaching CT: Universal Intellectual Standards • Clarity – Could you elaborate further on this point? Could you give me an example? • Accuracy – Is that really true? How could we check that? How could we find out if it is true? .

Teaching CT: Universal Intellectual Standards • Precision – Could you give more details? – Could you be more specific? • Relevance – How is that connected to the question? – How does that bear on the issue? .

Teaching CT: Universal Intellectual Standards • Depth – How does your answer address the complexities of the situation or question? – How are you taking into account the problem inherent in the situation? – Is your answer focusing on the most significant factors? .

Teaching CT: Universal Intellectual Standards • Breadth – Do we need to consider another point of view? – Is there another way to look at this question? – What would this look like from a conservative standpoint? .

Teaching CT: Universal Intellectual Standards • Logic – Does this really make sense? – Does that follow from what you said? – How does that follow? (Elder & Paul) .

Teacher Strategies • Motivate students to learn CT • Create conducive classroom atmosphere • Use real problems and issues • Affirm students’ self worth • Listen attentively • Show support for student efforts .

Teacher Strategies • • • • • • Reflect and mirror CT ideas Regularly evaluate student progress Help students create networks Be critical teachers Learn how your students learn Model critical thinking (Brookfield. 1987) .

Instructional Strategies • Ask clear and unconfusing questions • Find out how much students know about course content • Distribute learning styles inventory • Use small group discussions • Pair and share .

reflective time • Require writing assignments • Design tests that require higher order thinking.Instructional Strategies • Provide quiet. such as essay test with problem-oriented questions • Use classroom assessment techniques .

Instructional Strategies • Ask students to write down questions on lecture content • Write down specific questions after lecture to be discussed in small groups • Use simulations • Employ teacher-guided discussion .

Instructional Strategies • Require student journals • Ask students to free write and brainstorm .