You are on page 1of 30

Control Systems

The Control Room of a Nuclear Power Station

What is a Control System?
 A control system is a system of hardware and software that controls the function of a piece of equipment, e.g. a radio controlled car is an example of a basic control system. Other examples include… Traffic Lights Microwave

Train Networks
Lifts Automatic Doors Burglar Alarm

Air Conditioning Systems
Security Lights Theme Park Rides Robots

The Parts of a Control System
 In their simplest form, control systems take in data as input, process the data, and then send out signals as output…

process the data.The Parts of a Control System  In their simplest form. control systems take in data as input. and then send out signals as output… .

Types of Control System  There are two main types of control system… Open Loop System & Closed Loop System .

an automatic door… . then sent as output. as it does not take account of the output.Open Loop System  The open loop system is the simplest type of control system.g. e. The input data is processed.

e.Open Loop System  The open loop system is the simplest type of control system.g. an automatic door… A person steps on a pressure pad. and sends a signal to the electric door The door opens in time for the person to walk through . and the pressure pad sends a signal to the control box The control box processes the data. The input data is processed. as it does not take account of the output. then sent as output.

and sends a signal to the microwave generator The microwave generator cooks the food for the required time at the required power  The problem with this open loop system is that the microwave oven will keep cooking the food. This input is sent to the embedded computer The embedded computer processes the data.Open Loop System  Another example of an open loop system is the control system for a microwave oven… A person selects the microwave power and the time for cooking. even if it is already burnt – there is no account of output. .

A feedback loop provides extra data. which is processed with the input data. .Closed Loop System  A closed loop system uses feedback provided by sensors. Feedback is where information from the output gets used as part of the input.

A feedback loop provides extra data.Closed Loop System  A closed loop system uses feedback provided by sensors. which is processed with the input data. Feedback is where information from the output gets used as part of the input. .

When the required amount of tilt has been reached. . e. Feedback also forms part of the input. the computer sends signals to the wing flaps and engine to stop any further adjustments. Sensors monitor the tilt of the aircraft and send this information to the control box.Closed Loop System  Most control systems are closed loop systems. The plane’s control box (a large computer) processes this data and sends signals to the wing flaps and engines. The wing flaps and engines make the necessary adjustments. This becomes part of the input.g. a flight control system… The pilot operates the control to put the aircraft into a steep turn.

The control box processes these settings and sends signals to the boiler and water pump. if the house is too cold. and the thermostat on the wall is turned to the correct temperature. The thermostat is a heat sensor which detects the temperature in the room.Closed Loop System  Another example of a closed loop system is a central heating system… Timings are set at the control box for the heating to come on and off. Feedback from the thermostat forms part of the input. which will switch the water pump off if the house is warm enough and on. The boiler and water pump operate together to warm the house to the correct temperature. . The thermostat sends signals to the control box.

What different control systems might there be onboard this yacht?  Navigation  Air conditioning  Engine Management .

.Control Technology Some of the most advanced control technology is used in cars and airplanes.

Control Technology This car’s control systems include:  ABS (Anti-lock Braking System)  Engine Management  Rain detecting windscreen wipers  Darkness detecting headlights .

Sensors monitor the motion of the wheels. i. starts skidding.Anti-lock Brake System  Draw an input-output diagram for the flow of data in an anti-lock brake system… The driver applies the brakes firmly in an emergency. Feedback from the sensors in the wheel also forms part of the input. the control box sends a signal to the brake calliper to release the brake on that wheel for a fraction of a second. just until the wheel starts turning again.e. If any of the wheels stops turning. The calliper either grabs or releases the wheel and the car slows down as quickly as possible without skidding. . The control box processes the data and either allows the braking to go ahead or sends a signal to the calliper to release a wheel.

which would then slow down the wipers.Rain-detecting Windscreen Wipers  Draw an input-output diagram for the flow of data in a rain-detecting windscreen wiper control system… Sensors in the windscreen detect the moisture level and send data to the control box. This data is fed back to the control box. Sensors in the windscreen continue to send data to the control box. if the car slows down.g. The control box processes the data and sends a signal to the windscreen wipers. less rain will hit the windscreen so the moisture level will go down. The driver may also set the wipers manually. The wipers move at a rate which removes the water efficiently. controlling the precise speed of movement. . whilst distracting the driver as little as possible. e.

Fly-by-Wire .

Fly-by-Wire Fly-by-wire is a complex control system that controls and monitors:  Thrust (force produced by the engine)  Lift (upwards force produced by the wings)  Pitch and yaw (the tilt of the aircraft)  Flight plan (weight. route. weather conditions) . destination.

such as cables from the cockpit directly to the rudders. engines and wing flaps in order to achieve the desired results.  There are no physical links. then onto the output devices.Fly-by-Wire  Fly-by-wire creates a huge amount of data which is passed from sensors. etc. engines. to the onboard computer to be processed.  The computer processes the pilot’s instructions from the joystick and other cockpit controls. . then sends signals to the rudders.

or override the pilot’s instruction. to prevent an accident. the system may issue a warning to the pilot.  Modern aircraft are so complex. that it would not be possible to fly them without fly-by-wire technology. .Fly-by-Wire  If the pilot pulls too heavily on the joystick.

 They can be used in inhospitable and dangerous situations. inside Nuclear power stations.g.  They can be relied upon to respond quickly and precisely to data from many different sensors at the same time. They don’t need a break.Advantages of Control Systems  Control systems can work 24 hours a day. . they don’t complain and they don’t need paying – unlike humans. 7 days a week. e.

whereas a human would be able to take action. .  The software and hardware can be expensive because it may have to be produced specifically for a particular job.  The computer cannot react to unexpected events. or those inside a nuclear power station.Disadvantages of Control Systems  If a computer fails. For this reason. the whole system will fail. such as flyby-wire. are protected with emergency backup systems ready to take over in case the main system fails. only those events which have been programmed in. important control systems.

Keyword Activity 1 Drag the missing words to the correct place in the sentences… .

Keyword Activity 2 Drag the missing words to the correct place in the sentences… .

Wordsearch .

Crossword .

Quiz .

g. input. .  Understand the difference between an open loop system and a closed loop system. e. burglar alarm. process.  Be able to list several examples of computer controlled systems. output and feedback for common control systems.Objectives After viewing this presentation. you should…  Understand the terms control system.  Be able to draw input-output diagrams to explain what happens at each stage of input. processing and output. traffic lights.  Be able to describe feedback.

End of Show All images are for viewing purposes only. and its licensors. . All rights reserved. Copyright 2008 © Smart Presentations Ltd.