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Week 2: Faith and War – Medieval Europe and the Islamic World, c. 600 – 1 00.

Empires !e"ve covered this !eek# 1. Islamic Empire, 2. $%&antine Empire, . 'arolin(ian Empire, ). *ol% +oman Empire, ,lso# the Franks, ,n(lo-.a/ons, 0isi(oths, 1stro(oths, 0andals and an% other reall% cool 2ar2arian (roups.
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!ith minimum . academic sources.Minor Essa%. . 3ou must !rite an essa% in response to 16E o7 the 7ollo!in( 8uestions: What factors contributed to the rise of Islam and its subsequent diffusion across Eurasia (570-1258 CE) 1+ Who !ere the "on#ols What accounted for the formation and ra$id e%$ansion of the "on#ol em$ire in Eurasia (c& 1200-1'00 CE) Essa%s must 2e 1200 !ords 9not includin( re7erencin(:.

1DD6.F 9. +eed 6e! *olland. . 4o! to cite 5. p. 2ut also the local li2raries usuall% have a 7e! (ood sources.'itations# !hat to use and ho! to cite5 1nlines data2ases: Em$ire (nline) !!!&em$ire&amdi#ital&co&u* +.1: 1+ 9.E9CI9: . <he Future Eaters.<E6.E 46. 1DD).8 ..) !!!&/stor&or# -a0lor 1 2rancis (nline) !!!&tandfonline&com $ooks: <hrou(h the => li2rar%. We had to sa% Edicket%E cause that @aiser had stolen our !ord Et!ent%E. I chased that rascal to (et it 2ack. m% stor% 2e(ins in 1D-dicket%-t!o. 'heck on the online catalo(ue: htt$s)33#ccco$ac&sirsid0ni%&net&au3client3#oldcoastlibraries <he Aossier4 $ut onl% 2 readin(s 7rom the dossier.. pp.: $i2lio(raph%: Flanner% <im.-(.E2E. 2ut (ave up a7ter dicket%-si/ miles. the other 6B should pre7era2l% 2e 7rom other te/ts. 6e! 3ork.impson.impson.1.76. $E ?I'@3. 1DD6.E& In te/t: C6o!.

11G C$%&antine societ% !as an educated oneH 7or 2oth se/es – a thin( unheard o7 in the 'hristian !est until some 1000 %ears laterF • ?.F • ?. 'ultural *istor%.11. 7or economic. 'rusades !ere undertaken !ith (reat re(ularit%F. mostl% in reli(ious cultureF • ?. the Frankish kin(dom and the $%&antine Empire – incidentall% all en(a(ed in Mediterranean trade – !as inevita2le. as !ell as. Europe: .11I C<his resulted. reli(ious reasons. <he so-called J'%rillic !ritin(" spread over the $alkans and even 7urther. . in a schism 2et!een +ome and 'onstantinopleF. in 10G). For t!o centuries.11I CMethodius and '%rillusH reputed to have devised an alpha2et 7or the then illiterate . political and perhaps. • ?.t the same time. 2006 • ?. 2e(innin( in 10DG. and still retains its use there. sometimes. the 'rusades !ere e77ectivel% European armed invasions o7 the *ol% Kand and the !ider Islamic 6ear East. 'hristian $%&antium. Ccon7lict over po!er 2et!een the Islamic caliphate.121 C.<he +eadin(s: +EI<$E+=E6.lavs.

natolian ?eninsulaH like the Mon(ols 2e7ore them and others a7ter them. C<he . With their technolo(ical militar% superiorit%. World *istor%.nother important event o7 this convulsive period !as the creation o7 the 1ttoman state 2% the <urks o7 the . the .ra2 'hristians initiall% !ere ea(er to assist the crusadersF.)1 C<he most important item o7 trade 2et!een the East and West !ere spices. and (in(er and pepper 7rom IndonesiaHF . D6 C.6-. • ?. the 1ttomans con8uered the $alkans and captured 'onstantinople. thus endin( the 1000 %ear-old $%&antine Empire. 200G • ?. created C(unpo!der empiresF.F • ?.2d al-+ahman IIIM also encoura(ed Ne!ish scholarship at a time !hen minorities !ere vi(orousl% persecuted in the rest o7 Europe.0D: and his son Mamun 9rei(ned . )0D C<he crusaders massacred the civilian population o7 Nerusalem – mostl% eastern 'hristians and Ne!sF. DD C*e L. :.1 -.)0.>?.F • ?.elOuks sometimes persecuted and e/tracted heav% ta/es 7rom 'hristian . especiall% cinnamon 7rom India. DI C>nder 'aliph *arun al-+ashid 9rei(ned I.22asid Empire reached its &enith o7 po!er and !ealth. cardamom 7rom . • ?.rden.F • ?.ra2 minorities – a reason !h% some .*>+.

ilk +oad to enter the &one o7 Mediterranean trade. 2011 • ?. and. e/chan(e 2et!een the empires 7lourished. With cheaper 2ooks came 2ookstores.F • ?. In the a2sence o7 a central reli(ious authorit%. and $uddhists carried out 2% the Poroastrian hi(h priest.F • ?.2 0 C<he rise in the third centure o7 a ne! Iranian state.2)G CInitiall% the ne! Muslims imitated .$>KKIE<.F • ?.2 0 CIn times o7 peace.asanid Empire. Ne!s. continued the old rivalr% 2et!een +ome and the ?arthians alon( the Euphrates 7rontier. <his (ave the rapidl% (ro!in( reli(ion the 7le/i2ilit% to accommodate man% di77erent social situations. <he Earth and Its ?eoples.ra2 dress and customs and emulated people the% re(arded as particularl% pious. o7 course. o7 the 2ooks sold at one 2ookstore in $a(hdad.2 2 C.22D CMaps. or a descriptive catalo(. ho!ever.F . local variation developed in the !a% people practiced Islam and in the hadith the% attri2uted to the ?rophet. 3et si&a2le 'hristian and Ne!ish communities remained. allo!in( (oods transported over the .F • ?. and one o7 the most in7ormative manuscripts o7 the period o7 the Islamic caliphate is a Fihrist. 2ooks 2ecame increasinl% common and ine/pensive. the . especiall% in Mesopotamia. miniature paintin(s. late-third-centur% inscription in Iran 2oasts o7 the persecutions o7 'hristians.

and to the remote rivers the Aanu2e and Euphrates. as !ell as hu(e colonies in the a(rarian re(ions o7 Europe. 200G: .2 million s8uare miles and ruled more than 120 million peopleH to link all its provinces and all its people. C<he spread o7 a(rarian civilisations around the Mediterranean laid the 7oundations 7or a ne! imperial s%stem.2D. +oman e/pansion 2e%ond Ital% 2e(an !ith the con8uest o7 . durin( the ?unic Wars 926)-1)6 $'E:. 'artha(e. around much o7 the northern coast o7 the Mediterranean. 200.111 C<he small cit% o7 +ome stru((led to survive. .F 9$laine%.: • ?. 2e7ore it split at the end o7 the 7ourth centur% 'E. the +oman Empire controlled most o7 the Mediterranean. under +ome.<he +oman Empire# • ?.000 miles o7 stone-paved roadsF 9'rau(h!ell. In D0 $' it !as 2esie(ed 7or seven months 2% an arm% o7 =auls !ho 7inall% entered and hal7-!recked the cit%.icil% in 2)1 $'E and !ith +ome"s centur%-lon( duel !ith a second re(ional hu2. 200): • ?.t its hei(ht. 200): • ?.F 9$laine%.7rica.11 C!ell-2uilt +oman roads e/tended alon( much o7 the coast o7 6orth . the +oman 2uilt G0.F 9'hristian.1G C<he +oman Empire covered 2.

<he =oths even volunteered 7or th +oman arm%. 16 C<he C?la(ue o7 NustinianF !hich struck $%&antium in G)2 – ) . and the last 0andal kin(. !hen Emperor 'onstantine put an end to the persecution o7 the 'hristians. the 0andal kin(dom collapsed. !as captured and 2anished to a remote corner o7 . !as almost certainl% 2u2onic pla(ue. Within si/ months.F 9'rau(h!ell. 200. 9'hristian.sia.: • .D6 CIn G . <he pla(ue recurred 7or at least the ne/t t!o centuriesF. !hen the Emperor Nustinian sent an arm% to 'artha(e.7ter 12. =elimer. althou(h heretical . 2 C. the =oths 2e(an to convert. 9'rau(h!ell. 200G: • ?. as !e have a detailed account o7 it 7rom the historian ?rocopius. 200.: • ?. most o7 the 0andals !ere dead or in hidin(. and in man% cases these 2ar2arian le(ions !ere led 2% =oth o77icersF.7rican su2Oects rushed to the aid o7 the $%&antines.<he $%&antine Empire# p. the 0andals" .rian 2ishops and priests (ot to them 2e7ore the 'atholics could.

F 9'au(h!ell. in constant competition and close to the maOor tradin( routes o7 the Mediterranean !orld. 'harlema(ne consolidated a multitude o7 tin%.. 200. p. and cultural po!erhouse that 2rou(ht sta2ilit% to !estern Europe and served as a counter2alance to the $%&antine Empire in eastern Europe.s a result. p. D1: . <he *ol% +oman Empire aspired to 2ut 7ailed to achieve this role. militar%. 7ra(mented kin(doms and principalities into a political.<he *ol% +oman Empire#  C$% 7oundin( an empire.120:  CIn !estern Europe.F 9'hristian. !estern Europe emer(ed durin( the postclassical Malthusian c%cle as a re(ion o7 man% small states. no ne! tri2utar% empires emer(ed a7ter the collapse o7 those that had ruled the re(ion in the classical era. unlike in Mesopotamia or 'hina. 200G. .

11):  C. or 0andals !ould 2e in other parts o7 the empire. the Franks !ere not nearl% as destructive to +oman societ% in =aul as the *uns. !hich did not reco(nise the spiritual authorit% o7 the pope.round the %ear 2IG. 200. 200. =oths. !hen the Franks em2raced 'hristianit% the% 2ecame 'atholicsF 9'au(h!ell.122: .nd !ereas the =oths and 0andals converted to the .s a nation that over the %ears had 2ene7ited 7rom its tied to +ome.rian 7orm o7 'hristianit%. Franks invaded =aul and rava(ed sevent% +oman cities and to!nsF 9'au(h!ell. 200. p. p. . three Franks held ver% in7luential positions in the +oman militar%F 9'au(h!ell.<he Franks#  C?erhaps as earl% as the time o7 Nulius 'aesar. $% the %ear G0..11G:  C6ot all the Franks served +ome.. Franks served in the +oman arm%. p. ..

!as the 2ranch that . • <he Eastern =oths. 200. <he% !ould eventuall% carve out a kin(dom 7or themselves that e/tended 7rom central France to the southern coast o7 . also kno!n as the 0isi(oths.2 : . took po!er in Ital% in the si/th centur%H their impact on the +oman Empire !as minimalF 9'au(h!ell..pain.laric led a(ainst +ome. or 1stro(oths.!eden in the area kno!n as =Qtaland. <he Western =oths.$ar2arians# 0isi(oths and 1stro(oths • C<echnicall% there !ere t!o 2ranches o7 this 2ar2arian nation Lthe =othsM that ori(inated in southern . p.

F 9'au(h!ell. 200.pain the% learned 7rom the local people around the port o7 'arta(ena ho! to 2uild and sail ships. 7ri(htened tri2e o7 re7u(ees to a mi(ht% nation !ith dreams o7 an empire. p. landin( at modern-da% 'euta.t some point.7rica.<he 0andals  C<he +oman historian <acitus 9c.6I:  CAurin( the 7ourth and 7i7th centuries..F 9'au(h!ell. p. G6 – 11I: !rote that in his da% the 0andals !ere an a(rresive nation 7amous 7or their skill as ni(ht 7i(hters.. p. <o slip amon( their enemies undetected. on the Moroccan coast.0.I): . the% 2lackened their 7aces and hands. 200.F 9'au(h!ell.F 9'au(h!ell.. the 0andals 7ell on hard times.traits o7 =i2raltar. either in the re(ion o7 central ?olan that !as their homeland. !here scarcel% seven miles o7 !ater seperates Europe 7rom . 200. 200. . as !ell as their shields and !eapons. <he% !ere the onl% 2ar2arian people to learn ho! to 2uild ships and 7orm a nav%. the 0andals evolved 7rom a !eak. p. or in =erman% !here the% scram2led to escape the *uns.6I:  CAurin( the do&en %ears or so that the% had occupied southern ..I):  .000 0andals makin( the crossin(H <he% crossed at the .n Ce/odus 2e(an in )2D !ith appro/imatel% .

<he $ritons re7erred to all these tri2es simple as Cthe .F 9'au(h!ell.10 : . and the Nutes 7rom southern Aenmark..A. p. p.n(les.101:  CIt is tranditional to point to 60 as the %ear !hen !e can chart the 2e(ininn( o7 the end o7 +oman $ritain. took countless lives.100:  CGDI: . p. and compelled the survivors to look 7or sa7et% in the most remote corners o7 the island. p. 200.a/ons. 200. !hile Irish pirates attached the to!ns and villas alon( $ritain"s !estern coast.a/ons 7rom the area o7 northern =erman% kno!n as . three ships o7 Fermanic !arriors came ashore on the eastern coast o7 En(land.t. <here ma% have also 2een Frisians.F 9'au(h!ell.. !ho had come as colonists 2e(innin( in the 7irst centur% .. !ho lived in the territor% that !ould 2ecome kno!n as En(land. 200.u(ustine leads the 7irst 'hristian mission to .chles!i(. 200.100:  CFor the $ritons.. 9'au(h!ell.a/onsFF. a =ermanic tri2e 7rom *olland amon( them too.<he . . In that %ear the ?icts s!armed over *adrian"s Wall and raided 3orkshire.a/on En(landF 9'au(h!ell. carr%in( o77 hundreds o7 civilians to sell into slaver%..n(lo-. the =ermanic invasion !as an unmiti(ated disaster that destro%ed their civili&ation. and the +omans. C<he !arriors represented three tri2es – the . Nutes and Frisians  In the 7i7th centur%.n(les and .

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