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# A beam is defined as a structural member (line element) designed primarily to support forces acting perpendicular to the axis of the

member. The principal difference between beams and the axially loaded bars and torsionally loaded shafts is in the direction of the applied load.

Shear Force: is the algebraic sum of the vertical forces acting to the left or right of the cut section
Bending Moment: is the algebraic sum of the moment of the forces to the left or to the right of the section taken about the section

When a beam is loaded by forces or couples, stresses and strains are created throughout the interior of the beam. To determine these stresses and strains, the internal forces and internal couples that act on the cross sections of the beam must be found.

Members that are slender and support loads applied perpendicular to their longitudinal axis.

Longitudinal Axis

Span, L

Pin

FV

FH

Fixed

FV
Roller

M Fv
Roller Pin

FH

FV

FV

Continuous Beam

## Propped Cantilever Beam

At any cut in a beam, there are 3 possible internal reactions required for equilibrium:

## normal force, shear force, bending moment.

a L

At any cut in a beam, there are 3 possible internal reactions required for equilibrium:

M N V

## Positive Directions Shown!!!

Pb/L

At any cut in a beam, there are 3 possible internal reactions required for equilibrium:

M N

## Positive Directions Shown!!!

Right Side of Cut

Pa/L

L-x

## Pick left side of the cut:

Find the sum of all the vertical forces to the left of the cut, including V. Solve for shear, V. Find the sum of all the horizontal forces to the left of the cut, including N. Solve for axial force, N. Its usually, but not always, 0. Sum the moments of all the forces to the left of the cut about the point of the cut. Include M. Solve for bending moment, M

P = 20 kips
1 2 3 4 5
6 7

10

8 kips

12 ft 20 ft

12 kips

## Point 6 is just left of P and Point 7 is just right of P.

P = 20 kips
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

8 kips

12 ft 20 ft
8 kips

12 kips

V
(kips)
-12 kips 64 80 96 72 48 24

M
(ft-kips)

16

32

48

V & M Diagrams

P = 20 kips

8 kips

12 ft 20 ft
8 kips

12 kips

V
(kips)

## What is the slope of this line?

96 ft-kips/12 = 8 kips

## What is the slope of this line?

-12 kips c x

M
(ft-kips)

V & M Diagrams

P = 20 kips

8 kips

12 ft 20 ft
8 kips

12 kips

V
(kips) What is the area of the blue rectangle? 96 ft-kips -12 kips 96 ft-kips

## What is the area of the green rectangle?

-96 ft-kips

M
(ft-kips)

The magnitude of the shear at a point equals the slope of the moment diagram at that point.

The area under the shear diagram between two points equals the change in moments between those two points.

At points where the shear is zero, the moment is a local maximum or minimum.

Common Relationships
0

Constant

Linear

Constant Shear

Linear

Parabolic

Linear

Parabolic

Cubic

Moment

Common Relationships
0
M

Constant

Constant Shear

Constant

Linear

Linear
Moment

Linear

Parabolic