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• A mechanical seal is a device which helps join systems or mechanisms

together by preventing leakage containing pressure, or excluding
• Induction sealing is a non-contact method of heating a
metallic disk to seal the top of plastic and glass containers.
This sealing process takes place after the container has been
filled and capped.
• multilayer liner already inserted in the closure.
3 layers
a).paper pulp(spot glued to the cap)
c).polymer film laminated to the foil
• after cap applied it passes through induction coli which emits
varying electromagnetic field
Why induction sealing?

• Tamper evidence :
The seal cannot be removed and reapplied without leaving visible
evidence of entry. Seals applied by heat induction to plastic
containers appear to offer a higher degree of tamper-resistance
than those that depend on an adhesive to create the bond

• Leak prevention
• Retain Freshness

• Pilferage protection
Pharmaceutical companies purchase liners that will
purposely leave liner film/foil residue on bottles.
• A sealant is a viscous material that changes state to become solid, once
applied, and is used to prevent the penetration of air, gas, noise, dust,
fire, smoke or liquid from one location through a barrier into another
1. Insolubility
2. corrosion resistance
3. Adhesion
• Acryl sealants
• Polysulfide sealants
• Polyurethane sealants
• Silicone sealants
• WTK sealants
• Firestop

• The Bodok seal is a specialised washer that ensures a gas-tight seal

between the cylinder yoke or regulator of an anaesthetic machine
or any medical device requiring a gas supply, and a gas cylinder.

• consists of a neoprene washer with a peripheral metal reinforcing ring which

prevents splaying of the washer.

• The seal is incombustible and resistant to the high pressures imposed upon
it by cylinder gases (a full cylinder has a pressure of approx 2000 psi / 140
• seals a high pressure volume by the use of an unsupported area to
create a higher pressure between two pistons.

• A viscous material such as copper or soap

stone is used in the generated higher
pressure area to seal the intended pressure

• A bung is an apparatus used to seal a container, such as a bottle,

tube or barrel.

• Partially inserted and displaces the inside volume

• Usually made of hardened rubber

• Plastic bungs are commonly used to stop the air leaking from the
lower parts of an air-bed. This type of bung is commonly made in
two parts; the plastic outer screw on cap and the inner rubber bung
used to seal the hole.

• Examples: wine bottles and laboratory apparatus

• Coating is a covering that is applied to an object.

• The aim of applying coatings is to improve surface properties of a

bulk material usually referred to as a substrate.

• One can improve amongst others appearance, adhesion,

wetability, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, scratch
resistance, etc

• A diaphragm seal is a flexible membrane

that seals and isolates an enclosure.
The flexible nature of this seal allows
pressure effects to cross the barrier but not the material being

• Common uses for diaphragm seals are to protect pressure sensors

from the fluid whose pressure is being measured.

• Examples :
1. Sanitary processes
2. Pneumatic systems
3. Pure process fluids

• A gasket is a mechanical seal that fills the space between

two objects, generally to prevent leakage between the
two objects while under compression.

Gaskets are commonly produced by cutting from sheet

materials, such as gasket paper, rubber, silicone, metal, cork,
felt, neoprene, nitrile rubber, fiberglass, or a plastic polymer

• Desirable that the gasket be made from a material that is to some

degree compressible such that it tightly fills the space it is
designed for, including any slight irregularities.

• A hermetic seal is a seal which, for practical purposes, is

considered airtight .

• Used in electronic parts and food items to be air tight

• Can be made of meta or other material with metal lining. So that it

is airtight after using.
• A labyrinth seal is a mechanical seal that fits around an
axle to prevent the leakage of oil or other fluids.

• composed of many straight threads that press tightly inside

another axle, or inside a hole, so that the fluid has to pass through
a long and difficult path to escape

• Labyrinth seals on rotating shafts provide non-contact sealing

action by controlling the passage of fluid through a variety of
chambers by centrifugal motion, as well as by the formation of
controlled fluid vortices.
• Turbines use labyrinth seals due to the lack of friction, which is
necessary for high rotational speeds.
• A lid is part of a container, and serves as the cover or seal,
usually one that completely closes the object.

• Lids have been found on pottery dating back as far as 3100 BC.

• Often a part of a living creature covering an opening is called a lid.

The word has other usages for things that cover something.

• Also known as cap, closure, seal, closing element, closure

element, sealing element
• A face seal is a seal in which the sealing surfaces
are normal to the axis of the seal.

• Face seals are typically used in static application and are used to prevent
leakage in the radial direction with respect to the axis of the seal.

• Face seals are often located in a groove or cavity on a flange.

Types of face seals

• O-rings
• E rings
• C rings
• Gaskets
• An o-ring is a loop of elastomer with a round (o-shaped)
cross-section used as a mechanical seal or gasket.
• seated in a groove and compressed during assembly between two
or more parts, creating a seal at the interface.
• joint may be static or have relative motion between the parts and
the o-ring
• Joints with motion usually require lubrication of the o-ring to
reduce wear
• O-rings are one of the most common seals used in machine design
because they are inexpensive and easy to make, reliable, and
have simple mounting requirements.
• tens of megapascals can be sealed.
• A piston ring is an open-ended ring that fits into a groove on the
outer diameter of a piston in a reciprocating engine

three main functions of piston rings in reciprocating engines are:

• Sealing the combustion/expansion chamber.
• Supporting heat transfer from the piston to the cylinder wall.
• Regulating engine oil consumption.
• Is intended to seal some type of element (probe, wire, conductor,
pipe, tube, fiber optic cable) when the element must pass through
a pressure or environmental boundary
• It restrains the element from moving as a result of a pressure
• It prohibits the leakage of gas/liquid media along the element
• In some cases, it electrically isolates the element from the
mounting device.

• Dynamic seal used to seal pistons or rods that are in linear


• involve relative reciprocating motion along the shaft axis

between the inner and outer elements. In reciprocating seal
applications, the O-ring slides or rocks back and forth within
its gland with the reciprocating motion.
• involve motion between a shaft and a housing. Typical rotary
seals include motor shafts and wheels on a fixed axle.

• O-ring seals are NOT recommended for rotary applications

under the following conditions:

• Pressures exceeding 800 psi.

• Temperatures lower than -40° C (-40° F) or higher than
107° C (225° F).
• Surface speeds exceeding 600 feet per minute (fpm).
• When an elastomer is stretched and heated, it will contract.

• This is called the Gough-Joule effect. This is an important

design consideration in a rotary application because

if an O-ring is installed in a stretched condition, frictional

heat will cause the O-ring to contract onto the shaft.

This may cause the O-ring to seize the rotating shaft so

that the dynamic interface becomes the O-ring O.D. and the
groove I.D.

The contraction will also cause more frictional heat, further

exacerbating the situation and causing premature failure of
the O-ring.

• Mechanical seals are engineered for most  pumps, mixer and agitator
applications in maintenance.

• standard mechanical seals can suit most requirements-including

temperatures to 500 degrees F and shaft speeds to 3600 RPM

• Seals can be ordered in balanced configurations to seal pressures

above 200 psi, or used in a multiple for extremely high pressures
or especially severe fluid services

• Special mechanical seals can be furnished to meet the most

demanding of industrial applications considering pressure,
temperature, speed or fluid.
Mechanical Seals failures seem to fall into
four broad categories:

• The seal motion was restricted and the faces opened. 

• Heat caused the 0-rings to deteriorate.

• The seal materials were attacked by the fluid sealed.

• The seal was installed incorrectly.

Mechanical Seal materials attacked:
When the correct materials are not selected,

• The 0-rings may swell locking up the mechanical seal,

• The mechanical seal faces may deteriorate rapidly, and

• The metal seal components may corrode.

• All can cause the mechanical seals to fail.

A good company specification for mechanical seals will
include the following:

•  Mechanical Seal materials with the widest range of chemical


• Mechanical Seals that are easy to install

• Mechanical Seals with features that make seal repair easy and low cost

• Mechanical Seals that require the least amount of inventory and spare

• Mechanical Seals that operate over a wide range of temperature,

pressure and speed, and

• Mechanical Seal designs that allow the easiest conversion of packed

pumps to mechanical seals.