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# Applicable to large number of practical

## engineering problems though with several

limitations.
Simple form of equation only valid for incompressible
fluids.
No account taken of any mechanical devices in system
which add/remove energy (e.g. pumps, turbines, etc.).
No account taken of heat transfer into or out of fluid.
No account taken of energy lost due to friction.
Bernoullis Equation
- Restrictions
Flow Through
Sharp-Edged Orifice
Using Bernoulli from (1) to (2), and
assuming p
1
= p
2
= p
atm
, V
1
= 0:
g (z
1
z
2
) = g h = V
2
2
V = \(2 g h)
(Torricellis theorem),
and
= V A = A \(2 g h)

Q
Orifice Coefficients
The flow will converge as it leaves the orifice to
form a vena contracta, prior to diverging again.
Vena contracta area is typically 0.65 x orifice
area.
Actual discharge rate is less than theoretical
value discharge coefficient typically 0.65.
The actual jet velocity is also less than the
theoretical value velocity coefficient typically
0.98.
Stagnation Conditions
Fluid on streamline OX forced to zero velocity at X
this is a stagnation point.
The term stagnation is often used to describe the total
pressure conditions as this corresponds to when the
dynamic pressure term is zero.
The static pressure at zero-velocity conditions thus
relates to the total or stagnation pressure.
Flow Measuring Devices
Pitot Tube
This is an open-ended tube, bent
through 90
o
with the nose facing the
direction of the oncoming flow.
The fluid is brought to rest at the nose
so it measures the fluids stagnation or
total pressure (p
o
).
Flow Measuring Devices
Using Bernoullis equation for a
constant horizontal datum level:
p + V
2
= p
o
p
o
p = V
2
= Ah
m
g
V = \(2 Ah
m
g /)
Flow Measuring Devices
Pitot-Static Tube
Comprises pitot tube surrounded by concentric
outer tube with a ring of small holes, carefully
positioned to give representative static pressure
Pressure difference
between two is the flow
dynamic pressure
(V
2
).
Flow Measuring Devices
Venturi Meter

Ignoring friction losses and
applying Bernoullis
equation from (1) to (2).
p
1
+ V
1
2
= p
2
+ V
2
2

Assuming incompressible flow ( = constant):
p
1
- p
2
= (V
2
2 -
V
1
2
) _______ (1)
Applying continuity equation from (1) to (2):
V
2
= (A
1
/ A
2
) V
1
____________ (2)
Flow Measuring Devices
Venturi Meter (Cont.)

Substituting (2) into (1):
p
1
- p
2
= [(A
1
/A
2
)
2
V
1
2
V
1
2
]
Rearranging:

And

Discharge coefficient (C
d
) typically 0.97.
( )
1 2
1
2
1 2
2( )
/ 1
p p
V
A A

=
(

( )
1 2
1 1 1
2
1 2
2( )
/ 1
d d
p p
Q C AV C A
A A

= =
(

Flow Measuring Devices
Flow Nozzle
Similar to venturi-meter but no diffuser so
cheaper and more compact.

( )
1 2
1
2
1 2
2( )
/ 1
d
p p
Q C A
A A

=
(

( )
1
2
1 2
2
/ 1
m
d
h g
Q C A
A A

A
=
(

Flow Measuring Devices
Orifice Plate

Cheaper and takes up less space
than a venturi-meter but has
larger total pressure drop.
As with others:
C
d
typically 0.6 - corrects for non-uniformity & jet contraction.
( )
1
2
1 2
2
/ 1
m
d
h g
Q C A
A A

A
=
(