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Automatic Generation Control

(AGC)
by

Dr. Deependra Kumar Jha
ME (Power Systems), PhD (Electric Power System Engineering)
Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering
School of Engineering & Technology, Galgotias University
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Outline
Purpose and Overview of AGC
Automatic Generation Control (AGC)
System modeling: control block
diagram
AGC for single generator
AGC for 2 generators
AGC for multi generators
Area Control Error (ACE)
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Purpose of AGC
To maintain power balance in the
system.
Make sure that operating limits are not
exceeded:-
Generators limit
Tie-lines limit
Make sure that system frequency is
constant (not change by load).
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Overview of AGC
Load is always changing.
To maintain power balance,
generators need to produce more or
less to keep up with the load.
When Gen < Load (Gen > Load),
generator speed and frequency will
drop (rise).
=> We use this generator speed and
frequency as control signals!
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3 Components of AGC
Primary control
Immediate (automatic) action to sudden change of load.
For example, reaction to frequency change.
Secondary control
To bring tie-line flows to scheduled.
Corrective actions are done by operators.
Economic dispatch
Make sure that the units are scheduled in the most
economical way.
This presentation covers only primary and
secondary control of AGC.
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AGC for Single Area
System Modeling
Single Generator
Multi Generators, special case: two
generators
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System Modeling: Turbine-Governor
Model
Small signal analysis model, relating mechanical
power to the control power and the generator
speed.







Where = Small change in control setting power
= Small change in governor synchronous speed
= Small change in mechanical output power
= Regulation constant
= Transfer function relating mechanical power to control signals
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e A
C
P A
M
P A
( )( )
T G
sT sT + + 1 1
1
( ) s G
M
R
1
+
-
e A
C
P A
M
P A
( ) s G
M
R
Speed-Power Relationship
( )
|
.
|

\
|
A A = A e
R
P s G P
C M M
1
8
From synchronous turbine-governor:
small signal analysis model,


At steady state (s 0, 1),
we have
e A A = A
R
P P
C M
1
( ) s G
M
Static Speed-Power
Curve
From,


Primary control: Immediate
change corresponding to
sudden change of load
(frequency)
Secondary control: Change in
setting control power to
maintain operating frequency.
The higher R (regulation), the
better.
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e A A = A
R
P P
C M
1
e
Slope = -R
1 M
P
2 M
P
1 C
P
2 C
P
M
P
= =
1
2
0
e
Turbine and Generator Load
Model
Turbine Model



Generator load model
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1
Kp
STp +
( ) F s A
( )
D
P s A
( )
g
P s A
-
+
1
Kt
STt +
( )
g
P s A
( )
E
Y s A
AGC for Single Generator
closed loop power control system as
below.
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C
P A
( )( )
1 1
g T
Kg Kt
sT sT + +
R
1
+
-
1
Kp
STp +
( ) F s A
( )
D
P s A
( )
g
P s A
-
+
AGC for Multi Generators
Consider effect of
power flows in transmission lines, and
loads at each bus
to mechanical power of each
generator.
This analysis assumes that every bus
is a generator bus.
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Power Balance Equation at Each
Bus
At each bus,

Where
= Generator i power
= Load power at bus I
= Power flow from bus i
Consider small
changes,
i Di Gi
P P P + =
13
2 G
P
1 G
P
Gi
P
Di
P
i
P
i Di Gi
P P P A + A = A
G1 G2
3 D
P
1 D
P
2
V
1
V
3
V
G3
2 D
P
3 G
P
2
P
1
P
Load Power Equation ( )
Assume that

Where
= Small change of load input
= Small change of load power
= Small change of voltage angle
Substitute in power balance equation,

We have
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Li i Li Li i Li Di
P D P D P A + A = A + A = A o u

Di
P A
i
u

A
Li
P A
Di
P A
i Li i Li Gi
P P D P A + A + A = A o

i Di Gi
P P P A + A = A
Mechanical Power of Each Generator (
)
Linearized equation relating
mechanical power to generator power
and generator speed.

Where
= Small change in mechanical power of
generator i
= Small change in electric power of generator i
= small change in internal voltage angle of
generator i
From,
We have
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Gi i i i i Mi
P D M P A + A + A = A o o

Mi
P A
Gi
P A
i
o A
Gi
P A
i Li i Li Gi
P P D P A + A + A = A o

i Li i Li i i i i Mi
P P D D M P A + A + A + A + A = A o o o

Generator Block Diagram
From,
We can write
where
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( )
( )
i Li Mi
i i
i
P P P
D s M
A A A
+
= A
~
1
o

i Li i Li i i i i Mi
P P D D M P A + A + A + A + A = A o o o

Li i i
D D D + =
~
i i
D s M +
1
s
1
+
-
-
Mi
P A
Li
P A
i
o A
i
o e

A = A
i
P A
AGC for Multi Generators: Block
Diagram
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( ) s G
Mi
i
R
1
+
-
( ) s G
Pi
i
e A
Mi
P A
Li
P A
Ci
P A
i
P A
+
-
-
( )
( )
i i
Pi
D s M
s G
~
1
+
= ( )
( )( )
Ti Gi
Mi
sT sT
s G
+ +
=
1 1
1
Change in tie-line
power flow
Tie-line Model ( )
From power flow equation,

Approximate at normal operating
condition, we have

Then, for small change,


Where is called stiffness or synchronizing power coefficient
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i
P A
( )

=
=
n
k
k i ik k i i
B V V P
1
sin u u
( )

=
~
n
k
k i ik i
B P
1
u u
( ) ( )

= =
A A = A A ~ A
n
k
k i ik
n
k
k i ik i
T B P
1 1
u u u u
ik
T
Tie-Line Block Diagram
From and

We have,
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( )

=
A A = A
n
k
k i ik i
T P
1
u u
e u A = A
s
1
( )

=
A A = A
n
k
k i
ik
i
s
T
P
1
e e
s
1
+
+
+
ik
T
i
P A
i
u A i
e A
+
-
+
- +
-
k
u A
AGC for 2-Generator: Block
Diagram
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( ) s G
M 2
2
1
R
+
-
( ) s G
P2
2
e A
2 M
P A
2 L
P A
2 C
P A
21 2
P P A = A
+
-
-
2
o A
s
-
( ) s G
M1
1
1
R
+
-
( ) s G
P1
1
e A
1 M
P A
1 L
P A
1 C
P A
12 1
P P A = A
+
-
-
1
o A
s
+
-1
12
T
AGC for 2-Generator:
Static Speed-Power Curve
Load increases.
Frequency drops.
Steady state is reached
when frequency of both
generators is the same.
e
21
1 M
P
2 M
P
+ Ae
M
P
1
2
0
e
+ = Change in
total load
1 M
P'
2 M
P'
Steady State Frequency Calculation:
2 generators
From

Consider the frequency at steady
state,




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i Li i i i Li i i i i Mi
P P D P P D M P A + A + A = A + A + A + A = A e e e
~ ~

line tie L M
P P D P

A + A + A = A
1 1 1 1
~
e
line tie L M
P P D P

A A + A = A
2 2 2 2
~
e
2 1
e e e A = A = A
e A = A
1
1
1
R
P
M
e A = A
2
2
1
R
P
M
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
A A
= A
2 1
2 1
2 1
1 1 ~ ~
R R
D D
P P
L L
e
AGC for Multi Areas
Simplified Control Model
Area Control Error (ACE)
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Simplified Control Model
Generators are grouped into control areas.
Consider
An area as one generator in single area, and,
Tie-lines between areas as transmission lines
connecting buses in single area.
We can apply the same analysis to multi-
area!!
However, we have to come up with
frequency-power characteristics of each
area.
Actual application of this model is for power
pool operation.
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Power Pool Operation
Power pool is an interconnection of the
power systems of individual utilities.
Each company operates independently,
BUT,
They have to maintain
contractual agreement about power
exchange of different utilities, and,
same system frequency.
Basic rules
Maintain scheduled tie-line capacities.
Each area absorbs its own load changes.
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AGC for Multi Areas
During transient period, sudden change of load
causes each area generation to react according to
its frequency-power characteristics.
This is called primary control.
This change also effects steady state frequency and
tie-line flows between areas.
We need to
Restore system frequency,
Restore tie-line capacities to the scheduled value, and,
Make the areas absorb their own load.
This is called secondary control.
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Area Control Error (ACE)
Control setting power of each area
needs to be adjusted corresponding to
the change of scheduled tie-line
capacity and change of system
frequency.
ACE measures this balance, and is
given by,


for two area case.
Where = Frequency bias setting of area i (>0) and 27
e A + A =
1 12 1
B P ACE
e A + A =
2 21 2
B P ACE
i
B
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
i
Li i
R
D B
1
ACE: Tie-Line Bias Control
Use ACE to adjust setting control power,
, of each area.
Goal:
To drive ACE in all area to zero.
To send appropriate signal to setting control
power,
Use integrator controller so that ACE
goes to zero at steady state.
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Ci
P A
Ci
P A
AGC for 2-Area with Tie-line Bias Control: Block
Diagram
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( ) s G
M 2
2
1
R
+
-
( ) s G
P2
2
e A
2 M
P A
2 L
P A
2 C
P A
21 2
P P A = A
+
-
-
2
o A
s
-
( ) s G
M1
1
1
R
+
-
( ) s G
P1
1
e A
1 M
P A
1 L
P A
1 C
P A
12 1
P P A = A
+
-
-
1
o A
s
+
-1
12
T
-1
+
+
+
+
s
K
2

s
K
1

1
e A
2
e A
12
P A
21
P A
1
B
2
B
1
ACE
2
ACE