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Electric circuit

An electric circuit is simply an interconnection of electronic components that facilitates the transfer of charge from one point to another, to perform a specified goal.

Course Objectives

To establish an in-depth understanding of electrical circuit analysis techniques. To provide a foundation to undertake more advanced courses in electronics and communications.

Course Objectives

Analysis is a process of finding specific voltages & currents in circuit once its individual elements & their interconnections are known. Design/synthesis is a process of choosing a set of elements & devising their interconnections to achieve specific voltages & currents in a circuit.

Motivation to Learn Electrical Circuits

Basic building blocks of an electrical circuits are: Energy sources Resistors Capacitors Inductors All electronic circuits can be modeled as combination of above primitive circuit elements

Marks Distribution

Quizzes(5/6): Assignments(5): OHT(3): Final:

20 % 10 % 30 % 40 %

Grading: Relative as per IST policy

Books

Text Book: Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8th edition, by J. David Irwin & R. Mark Nelms Reference Books: Principles of Electric circuits, by Thomas L. Floyd Fundamentals of Electric circuits, by Alexander Sadiku

Introduction

Charge Current Voltage Resistance Power Energy

The Bohr Model

Two Simplest Atoms

Energy levels

Categories of Materials
On the basis of atomic structure materials are categorized as: Conductors (silver, copper) Semi-Conductors (silicon, germanium) Insulators (rubber, wood)

The Copper atom

Electric Charge

It is a basic property of elementary particles of matter. What we are doing when we "charge" something is transferring a small amount of material to leave an imbalance in the number of electrons and protons.

Coulomb: unit of charge

One Coulomb is the total charge possessed by 6.2510 electrons. Charge on single electron is 1 / 6.2510 = 1.610-19C. The total charge in a given number of electrons: Q = ne where, n= no. of electrons e= charge on single electron

Voltage (V):

The voltage is an indication of how much energy is required to move a charge between two points in a system. V=W/Q

Volt: unit of voltage

One volt is the potential difference (voltage) between two points when one joule of energy is used to move one coulomb of charge from one point to another. 1volt = 1joule / 1coulomb

Electromotive force (EMF)

The force that establishes the flow of charge in a system due to the application of a difference in potential.

Sources of EMF

Batteries (primary & secondary) Chemical energy Electrical energy Generators Mechanical energy Electrical energy Power Supply AC voltage DC voltage

Polarities of voltage

THE + AND - SIGNS DEFINE THE REFERENCE POLARITY

POINT A HAS 2V MORE THAN POINT B

POINT A HAS 5V LESS THAN POINT B

THE TWO-INDEX NOTATION FOR VOLTAGES


INSTEAD OF SHOWING THE REFERENCE POLARITY WE AGREE THAT THE FIRST SUBINDEX DENOTES THE POINT WITH POSITIVE REFERENCE POLARITY

VAB 2V

VAB 5V

VBA 5V

VAB VBA

Current (I):

Cont

Cont

Cont

It is the rate of flow of Charge. I=Q/t

For non steady flow: I = dQ/dt

Ampere: unit of current

One Ampere is the amount of current that exists when a number of electrons having a total charge of one coulomb move through a given cross-sectional area in one second. 1ampere = 1coulomb / 1second

Direction of current
A POSITIVE VALUE FOR THE CURRENT INDICATES FLOW IN THE DIRECTION OF THE ARROW (THE REFERENCE DIRECTION)

A NEGATIVE VALUE FOR THE CURRENT INDICATES FLOW IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION THAN THE REFERENCE DIRECTION

Resistor (R):

It is the opposition to the flow of current. R=V/I

Water pump analogy.

Ohm: unit of resistance

One ohm of resistance exists if there is one ampere of current in a material when one volt is applied across the material 1 = 1volt / 1ampere

Resistor symbol

Conductance (G):

It is the measure of ease with which the current can flow through a material. Reciprocal of resistance G=1/R G (unit) = 1 / ohm G (unit) = mho (siemens)

Types of resistors

Fixed resistors Variable resistors

Fixed resistors

Carbon composition resistor Chip resistor Carbon film Metal film Wire-wound

Variable resistors

Rheostat 2-terminal device current control device always connected in series Potentiometer 3-terminal device voltage control device always connected in parallel

Resistor markings

Energy (W):

It is the ability to do work. W=Fd

Joule: unit of energy

One joule is the work done when a force of one newton is applied through a distance of one meter. 1joule = 1newton 1meter

Power (P):

It is the rate at which the energy is used. P=W/t P = VI

Watt: unit of power

One watt is the amount of power when one joule of energy is used in one second. 1watt = 1joule / 1second

KWh: unit of energy


The kilowatt-hour (kWh) is a much larger unit of energy than the joule. There are 3.6 x 106 J in a kWh. Energy = Power Time

W=Pt

Circuit elements

Passive Active

Passive elements

PASSIVE ELEMENTS

Active elements
INDEPENDENT SOURCES

Active elements

VOLTAGE DEPENDENT SOURCES

Active elements

CURRENT DEPENDENT SOURCES

Protective Devices

Fuse (cheap, not re-usable) Circuit breaker (expensive, re-usable)

Measuring instruments