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SIFAT NUKLIR

Kuliah Fisika Nuklir


X
Z
A
Satuan
Energi - electron-volt
1 electron-volt = energi kinetik dari suatu elektron ketika bergerak
melalui beda potensial 1 Volt;
1 eV = 1.6 10
-19
Joules
1 kWhr = 3.6 10
6
Joules = 2.25 10
25
eV
1 MeV = 10
6
eV, 1 GeV= 10
9
eV, 1 TeV = 10
12
eV
massa - eV/c
2
1 eV/c
2
= 1.78 10
-36
kg
massa electron = 0.511 MeV/c
2
Massa proton = 938 MeV/c
2
= 0.938 GeV/ c
2

massa neutron = 939.6 MeV/c
2

momentum - eV/c:
1 eV/c = 5.3 10
-28
kg m/s
momentum baseball saat 80 mi/hr ~ 5.29 kgm/s ~ 9.9 10
27
eV/c
jarak
1 femtometer (Fermi) = 10
-15
m


Sifat Nuklir
Sifat Statik
Muatan listrik
Radius inti
Massa
Energi Ikat
Momentum angular
Paritas
Momen dipol magnetik dan
kuadrupol listrik
Energi eksitasi

Sifat Dinamik
Peluruhan
Probabilitas reaksi
Ilustrasi inti
Radius Inti
Rapat inti tidak berubah, shg


R=r
o
A
1/3
Radius inti
Volume inti sebanding dengan massa nuklirnya, maka
semua nuklida memiliki densitas yang sama
r
o
~1.1 to 1.6 fm
Jari-jari nuklir dapat diperngaruhi oleh gaya nuklir,
distribusi muatan, dan distribusi massa
Radius Gaya Inti
Radius medan gaya nuklir harus lebih kecil dari pada jarak
terdekat (d
o
)
T=T-2Ze
2
/d
d = jarak dari pusat ke nukleus
T = energi kinetik partikel o
T = energi kinetik mula-mula partikel o
d
o
= jarak terdekat mencapai pada tumbukan pada
T=0
T
Ze
d
o
2
2
=
d
o
~10-20 fm tuk Cu and 30-60 fm tuk U
Setiap muatan yang mengarah pada gaya nuklir dapat
digunakan untuk probe jarak dari pusat suatu nukleus
dalam nuklir dimana gaya nuklir (atraktif) menjadi
relatif penting dibandingkan Couloomb (gaya tolak)
Karena neutron tidak kena gaya Coulomb, percobaan
hamburan neutron dan penyerapan diharapkan lebih
mudah untuk diterangkan, namun neutron harus
berenergi cukup tinggi bila memiliki panjang
gelombang de Broglie yang lebih kecil dibandingkan
dengan dimensi nuklir, tapi pada energi tinggi, inti
menjadi cukup transparan untuk neutron.
Potential Square-Well dan
Woods-Saxon
Friedlander & Kennedy, p.32
A R r
o
e
V
V
/ ) (
1

+
=
V
o
=potensial pada pusat nukleus
a = konstanta ~ 0.5 fm
R = jarak dari pudat dimana V=0.5V
o

(untuk setengah radius) atau V=0.9V
o

dan V=0.1V
o
untuk drop-off dari 90 hingga 10%
dari potensial penuh of the full potential
r
o
~1.35 hingga 1.6 fm fontuk Square-Well,
r
o
~1.25 fm untuk Woods-Saxon dengan radius paro potensial,
r
o
~2.2 fm untuk Woods-Saxon dengan drop-off dari 90 hingga
10% -- tebal kulit dari potensial penuh
Percobaan hamburan yang menghasilkan kesepatan perkiraan
terhadap poternsial Square-Well; persamaan Woods-Saxon sesuai
dengan data yang lebih baik
Hamburan Electron
Using moderate energies of electrons, data is compatible with
nuclei being spheres of uniformly distributed charges
High energy electrons yield more detailed information about
the charge distribution (no longer uniformly charged spheres)
Radii distinctly smaller than indicated by the methods that
determine nuclear force radii
R
e
(half-density radius)~1.07 fm
d
e
(skin thickness)~2.4 fm

Bentuk Fermi
] / ) [(
1
) (
e e e
a R r
o
e
r

+
=

Friedlander & Kennedy, p.34


Nuclear Skin
Although charge density results give information on how protons are distributed in
the nuclei, no experimental techniques exist for determining the total nucleon
distribution
it is generally assumed that neutrons are distributed in roughly the same
way as protons
nuclear-potential radii are about 0.2 fm larger than the radii of the charge
distributions
Nucleus Fraction of nucleons in the skin
12
C 0.90
24
Mg 0.79
56
Fe 0.65
107
Ag 0.55
139
Ba 0.51
208
Pb 0.46
238
U 0.44
Massa Inti
Nukleus tersusun dari proton dan neutron
Proton dan Neutron lebih masif 1840 kali dari
elektron
Jumlah total nukleon adalah A
Jumlah proton dalam nukleus sama dengan
bilangan atom Z
Jumlah netron adalah A - Z
Massa Inti
1 satuan massa atom (u) didefinisikan massa
isotop
1 mol atom =12 g,
6,02 10
23
atom =12 10
-3
kg
Massa 1 atom = 12 10
-3
kg/(6,02 10
23
) = 1,99
10
-26
kg.
Sesuai dengan definisi 1 u sama dengan 1/12 massa
aisotop
1 u = 1,99 10
-26
kg/12 = 1,66 10
-27
kg.


Massa inti






1 u = 1,99 10
-26
kg/12 = 1,66 10
-27
kg
1 u setara dengan energi 931,502 MeV

Proton Netron
Muatan +1,6 10-19C 0C
Massa Diam 1,67252 10-27 kg
938,256 MeV
1,007277 u
1,67482 10-27kg
939,550 MeV
1,008665 u
Spin
Masses
Atomic masses
Nuclei and electrons
Nuclear mass
m
0
is electron rest mass, B
e
(Z) is the total binding energy of all the
electrons

B
e
(Z) is small compared to total mass
Consider beta decay of
14
C

14
C
14
N
+
+
-
+antinuetrino + energy
Energy = mass
14
C mass
14
N
Positron decay




Masses
For a general reaction
Terms
Binding energy
Difference between mass of nucleus and constituent nucleons
Energy released if nucleons formed nucleus

average binding energy per nucleon


Measures relative stability
Mass excess (in energy units)
M(A,Z)-A
Useful when A remains constant


Binding Energies
http://www.lbl.gov/abc/wallchart/chapters/02/3.html
Binding energy
Binding Energy of an even-A nucleus is generally higher than the
average of the values for the adjacent odd-A nuclei
this even-odd effect is more pronounced in graphing A vs.
the binding energy from the addition of one more nucleon
The very exothermic nature of the fusion of H atoms to form He--the
process that gives rise to the suns radiant energy--follows from the
very large binding energy of
4
He
Energy released from fission of the heaviest nuclei is large because
nuclei near the middle of the periodic table have higher binding
energies per nucleon
The maximum in the nuclear stability curve in the iron-nickel region
(A~56 through 59) is thought to be responsible for the abnormally
high natural abundances of these elements
Mass excess=A=M-A

Stable Nuclei
N even odd even odd
Z even even odd odd
Number 160 53 49 4

As Z increases the line of stability moves from N=Z to N/Z ~
1.5
influence of the Coulomb force. For odd A nuclei
only one stable isobar is found while for even A nuclei
no stable odd-odd nuclei
Terms
Binding can be used to determine energetics for reaction using mass
excess
Energy need to separate neutron from
236
U and
239
U
Binding-Energy
Volume of nuclei are nearly proportional to the number of
nucleons present
nuclear matter is quite incompressible
Total binding energies of nuclei are nearly proportional to the
numbers of nucleons present
saturation character
a nucleon in a nucleus can apparently interact with only a
small number of other nucleons
liquid-drop model of nucleus
Liquid-Drop Binding Energy:
c
1
=15.677 MeV, c
2
=18.56 MeV, c
3
=0.717 MeV, c
4
=1.211 MeV,
k=1.79 and o=11/A
1/2

1st Term: Volume Energy
dominant term
in first approximation, binding energy is
proportional to the number of nucleons
(N-Z)
2
/A represents symmetry energy
binding E due to nuclear forces is greatest for the
nucleus with equal numbers of neutrons and
protons


o + +
(
(

|
.
|

\
|


(
(

|
.
|

\
|

=
1 2
4
3 / 1 2
3
2
3 / 2
2
2
1
1 1 A Z c A Z c
A
Z N
k A c
A
Z N
k A c E
B
2nd Term: Surface Energy
Nucleons at surface of nucleus have unsaturated forces
decreasing importance with increasing nuclear size
3rd and 4thTerms: Coulomb Energy
3rd term represents the electrostatic energy that arises from the Coulomb
repulsion between the protons
lowers binding energy
4th term represents correction term for charge distribution with diffuse
boundary
o term: Pairing Energy
binding energies for a given A depend on whether N and Z are even or odd
even-even nuclei, where o=11/A
1/2
, are the stablest
two like particles tend to complete an energy level by pairing opposite spins

Mass Parabolas
For odd A there is only one |-stable nuclide
nearest the minimum of the parabola
For even A there are usually two or three possible |-stable
isobars
all of the even-even type
Friedlander & Kennedy, p.47
Magic Numbers
Certain values of N and Z--2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126 --exhibit
unusual stability
evidence from masses, binding energies, elemental and
isotopic abundances, numbers of species with given N or
Z, and o-particle energies
accounted for by concept of closed shells in nuclei

Friedlander & Kennedy, p.49
Single-Particle Shell Model
Collisions between nucleons in a nucleus are suppressed by the
Pauli exclusion principle
only accounts for magic numbers 2-20
Strong effect of spin-orbit interactions
if orbital angular momentum (l) and spin of nucleon
interact in such a way that total angular
momentum=l+1/2 lies at a lower energy level than that
with l-1/2, large energy gaps occur above magic
numbers 28-126
Ground states of closed-shell nuclei have spin=0 and even parity
R=r
o
A
1/3
Nuclear Shapes: Radii
Nuclear volumes are about proportional to nuclear
masses, thus all nuclei have approximately the same
density
Although nuclear densities are high compared to ordinary
matter, nuclei are not densely packed with nucleons
r
o
~1.1 to 1.6 fm
Nuclear radii can mean different things, whether they are
defined by nuclear force field, distribution of charges, or
nuclear mass distribution
Nuclear-Force Radii
The radius of the nuclear force field must be less than the
distance of closest approach (d
o
)
T=T-2Ze
2
/d
d = distance from center of nucleus
T = o particles kinetic energy
T = o particles initial kinetic energy
d
o
= distance of closest approach--reached in a head
on collision when T=0
T
Ze
d
o
2
2
=
d
o
~10-20 fm for Cu and 30-60 fm for U
Any positively charged particle subject to nuclear
forces can be used to probe the distance from the center
of a nucleus within which the nuclear (attractive) forces
become significant relative to the Coulombic (repulsive
force).

Since neutrons are not subject to Coulomb forces, one
might expect neutron scattering and absorption
experiments to be easier to interpret, however the
neutrons must be of sufficiently high energy to have de
Broglie wavelengths small compared to nuclear
dimensions, but at high energies, nuclei become quite
transparent to neutrons.
Square-Well and Woods-Saxon
Potentials
Friedlander & Kennedy, p.32
A R r
o
e
V
V
/ ) (
1

+
=
V
o
=potential at center of nucleus
a=constant~0.5 fm
R=distance from center at which V=0.5V
o

(for half-potential radii) or V=0.9V
o

and V=0.1V
o
for a drop-off from 90
to 10% of the full potential
r
o
~1.35 to 1.6 fm for Square-Well, r
o
~1.25 fm for Woods-Saxon
with half-potential radii, r
o
~2.2 fm for Woods-Saxon with drop-
off from 90 to 10%--the skin thickness--of the full potential
Scattering experiments lead to only approximate
agreement with the Square-Well potential; the Woods-
Saxon equation fits the data better.
Electron Scattering
Using moderate energies of electrons, data is compatible with
nuclei being spheres of uniformly distributed charges
High energy electrons yield more detailed information about
the charge distribution (no longer uniformly charged spheres)
Radii distinctly smaller than indicated by the methods that
determine nuclear force radii
R
e
(half-density radius)~1.07 fm
d
e
(skin thickness)~2.4 fm

Fermi Shape
] / ) [(
1
) (
e e e
a R r
o
e
r

+
=

Friedlander & Kennedy, p.34


Nuclear Skin
Although charge density results give information on how protons are distributed
in the nuclei, no experimental techniques exist for determining the total
nucleon distribution
it is generally assumed that neutrons are distributed in roughly the
same way as protons
nuclear-potential radii are about 0.2 fm larger than the radii of the
charge distributions
Nucleus Fraction of nucleons in the skin
12
C 0.90
24
Mg 0.79
56
Fe 0.65
107
Ag 0.55
139
Ba 0.51
208
Pb 0.46
238
U 0.44
Spin
Nuclei possess angular momenta Ih/2t
I is an integral or half-integral number known as the
nuclear spin
Protons and neutrons have I=1/2
Nucleons in the nucleus, like electrons in an atom, contribute
both orbital angular momentum (integral multiple of h/2 t) and
their intrinsic spins (1/2)
Therefore spin of even-A nucleus is zero or integral and spin of
odd-A nucleus is half-integral
All nuclei of even A and even Z have I=0 in ground state


Magnetic Moments
Nuclei with nonzero angular momenta have magnetic moments

B
m
e
/M
p
is used as the unit of nuclear magnetic moments and called a
nuclear magneton
Magnetic moment results from a distribution of charges in the
neutron, with negative charge concentrated near the periphery and
overbalancing the effect of an equal positive charge nearer the center
Magnetic moments are often expressed in terms of gyromagnetic
ratios
g*I nuclear magnetons, where g is + or - depending upon
whether spin and magnetic moment are in the same
direction
Only nuclei with I>1/2 have quadrupole moments
Interactions of nuclear quadrupole moments with the electric fields
produced by electrons in atoms and molecules give rise to abnormal
hyperfine splittings in spectra
Methods of measurement: optical spectroscopy, microwave
spectroscopy, nuclear resonance absorption, and modified
molecular-beam techniques
Methods of Measurement
1) Hyperfine structure in atomic spectra
2) Atomic Beam method
split into 2I+1 components
3) Resonance techniques
2I+1 different orientations
Quadrupole Moments: q=(2/5)Z(a
2
-b
2
)

Statistics
If all the coordinates describing a particle in a system are
interchanged with those describing another particle in the
system the absolute magnitude of the wave function
representing the system must remaining the same, but it may
change sign
Fermi-Dirac (sign change)
each completely specified quantum state can be
occupied by only one particle (Pauli exclusion principle)
Bose-Einstein (no sign change)
no restrictions such as Pauli exclusion principle apply
A nucleus will obey Bose or Fermi statistics, depending on
whether it contains an even or odd number of nucleons
Parity
Depending on whether the systems wave function changes sign when
the signs of all the space coordinates are changed, a system has odd or
even parity
Parity is conserved
even+odd=odd, even+even=even, odd+odd=odd
allowed transitions in atoms occur only between an atomic
state of even and one of odd parity
Parity is connected with the angular-momentum quantum number l
states with even l have even parity
states with odd l have odd parity
Friedlander & Kennedy, p.39