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EDUCATION – WHY ?
By V.RAMALINGAM ENVIRONMENT EDUCATION CELL STATE TRAINING CENTRE PUDUCHERRY
All Teachers need to be sensitized to their responsibilities for the safety and well being of their students during school days. They also need to be equipped with adequate knowledge and wherewithal to protect their students in the event of emergencies
Right to life and safety is a
fundamental right of any citizen. This is guaranteed under the constitution of every country in the world including India. Anything, which is hazardous to human, violates the right to life, and road safety is as much on the agenda as any other area, which may be accident-prone. More number of people dies every year from road accidents all over the world than the number killed during the whole of the Second World War.
Roadway Injury and Death Toll
W orldwide, Each Day Approximately 140,000 people are injured • 15,000 are disabled • 3,000 die
1.26 m illion were killed in roadway accidents in 200 accounting for 25% of all deaths from injury that ye
Sources:World Health Organi zation. “Road S afe ty is No Accident: A Broc hure for W orld Health D a y 2004. Ge neva . 2004. ril 7 Ap” Ahead of General Assem bly, A nnanurges C omm itm ent to R oad Safety . [Press Re lease]. Bone a nd Joi nt D ecade. 9 S eptember 2003. Available at: http:// w w.bo neand jointdecade.org w . Accessed Ma y 14 , 2004.
Statistics on road safety presents a very grim picture especially in India.
Road fatalities now leads the list of accidental deaths in India much more than any other such as by drowning, fire, rail or air mishaps etc.
The magnitude of road accidents in India is increasing at an alarming rate
About 85,000 people are killed every year in India and top the world in the number of road fatalities.
The broad road safety programme adopted two main sub-themes. *awareness on road safety issues to the general public And for school children.
Most of those killed are in the 15-44 age group, according to the statistics. A two-wheeler rider is five times more prone to accident as compared to a person in a fourwheeler.
There are nearly 3,39,13,000 two wheelers registered in India, which account for nearly 70 per cent of the total motor vehicles registered in the country.
Most of the fatalities in two wheeler accidents result from the pillion rider being thrown off the vehicle, resulting in grievous head injuries, the statistics say.
The issues, which were taken up for spreading awareness, were:
The need for wearing helmet for both, the riders and the pillion riders
Not using mobile
phones while driving
Not crossing Zebra Lines at signals or stopping
vehicles before Zebra lines
Signal jumping or avoiding signal jumping
Overloading of school auto rickshaws or avoiding
sitting in an overloaded auto rickshaw. Not
Mixing drinking and driving Wearing of seat belts
Bicycle rickshaw driver taking children home after School. New Delhi.
Road Use Varies from C ountry to C ountry
Global Burden of Disease Top 10
Cars dom in ate ro adw ays
Global Burden of Disease Top 10 Top 10 Global Burden of Disease
Vulnerable users: their deaths contribute to the higher death rate in these countries
• • • • • • • Pedestrians Bic yc lists Motorb ikers Passenger v ans M in i buses Cars Trucks
Low- and Middle -Income Countries
Roads are shared space among:
Sources:World Health Organi zation. “Road S afe ty is No Accident: A Broc hure for W orld Health D a y 2004. Ge neva . 2004. ril 7 Ap” NantulyaVM , Reich, M R. Equity dimensions of road traffic i njuries iand middle w- n lo -income countries. Injury control and S afe ty Prom otion 2003;10:13 . -20.
Road Safety: Not J ust a Transportation Issue
Global Burden of Disease Top 10 1990
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Lower respiratory infections Diarrheald iseases Perinatalc onditions Unipolardepression Ischemic heart disease Cerebrovascular disease Tuberculosis Measles Road traffic injuries Congenital abnormalities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ischemic heart disease U nipolardepression R oad traffic injuries C erebrovascular disease C hr. obstr pulmonary disease . Lower respiratory infections Tuberculosis War injuries D iarrheald iseases H IV
Source:M urra y C JL, Lopez AD , eds. [Table]. global burden of disease: a com prehensive assessm entality and disability from The of m ort diseases, injuries, and risk factors in 1990 and projected toBoston, Harvard U nive rsity Press, 1996. 02. 20
National level of fatalities per kilometer is 0.025. The road accidents were highest on National and State Highways i.e. 45 percent rather than rural roads (39 percent). Mostly heavy vehicles like buses and trucks are responsible for causing road accidents (43 percent).
The majority of road crash victims (injuries and fatalities) in developing countries are not the motorized vehicle occupants, but pedestrians, motorcyclists, bicyclists etc. Sixty percent deaths involve pedestrians and out of which 35 percent are children.
Road fatalities- reasons
Bad condition of roads Poor implementation of various laws governing road traffic and safety issues,
Lack of awareness of road safety issues
The faulty engineering of road mechanics, may it be road design or traffic lighting etc.
Difference in height between paved road surface and shoulder or adjacent surface Caused by:
– Inadequate maintenance – Erosion – Broken pavement – Resurfacing road but not shoulder
increase in number of vehicles is tremendous without much improvement in the road network.
The strength of the traffic police force in or out of cities has not increased substantially.
Types of Distraction Visual
Managing Driver Distraction
Why Don’t We All Keep Our Eyes on the Road and Our Minds on Driving?
Cell Phones and Driving
All Too Typical
Why All the Attention Now? Explosion in cell phone use New technologies (navigation systems, traveler information systems, etc.) Greater complexity of “old” technologies (radios, sound systems, vehicle displays, etc) People spending more time in cars Hot media topic Fear of new technology
Distracted Driver Crashes Outside object, person, event Adjusting radio, cassette, CD Other occupant in vehicle Moving object in vehicle Using other device or object Vehicle / climate controls Eating / drinking Using/dialing cell phone Smoking related Other Unknown distraction 29.4% (602 cases) 11.4 10.9 4.3 2.9 2.8 1.7 1.5 (42 cases) 0.9 25.6 8.6
Vehicle-Related Road Debris
Vehicle-related road debris (VRRD) is material—vehicle parts or cargo that has been unintentionally discharged from a vehicle onto the roadway.
Tires and Wheels are a Main Source
Appliances Barrels Box, i.e., Cardboard Furniture, Garbage & Trash Gravel & Soil
Lumber & Construction Materials Mufflers & Exhaust Parts Tire Treads Tree Limbs Vehicle Parts
No person shall operate ANY No person shall operate ANY motor vehicle on the road without motor vehicle on the road without a VALID license in their a VALID license in their possession. possession.
Young male drivers are the most likely to speed
Young drivers (under 21) who speed, also fail to wear safety belts.
• Must obey traffic rules and regulations. • Will not walk on any street where sidewalks or other marked pedestrian ways are provided. • Will walk on the right side of the street facing on-coming traffic.
• As a driver, you must have a clear field of vision to gather information and guide a motor vehicle effectively. • Good driving visibility depends on the distance you can see ahead and to the sides.
• Conditions Off-road can also reduce your field of view to either side of your intended path of travel on a highway.
Examples that may affect your driving environment
Bright Glare • Bright Glare • • Sunglasses • Sunglasses Driving at Night • Driving at Night • Driving at Dusk • Driving at Dusk • Bad Weather • Bad Weather •
Keep sunglasses clean and free of scratches. Polaroid, neutral gray, or green are rated the best for reducing glare.
Three factors affect your night vision.
• Ability to see under conditions of low light. • Ability to see against glare. • Time needed to recover from exposure to bright light.
RULES OF THE ROAD
V.RAMALINGAM ENVIRONMENT EDUCATION CELL STATE TRAINING CENTRE DIRECTORATE OF SCHOOL EDUCATION
GENERAL RULES KEEP LEFT on a two-way road to allow traffic from
the opposite direction to pass on your right and on a one-way road to allow vehicles behind you to overtake from your right. WHEN TURNING LEFT, keep to the left side of the road you are leaving as well as the one you are entering. When turning right, move to the centre of the road you are leaving and arrive near the left side of road you are entering.
Road junctions, Intersections Pedestrian crossings Road corners to
If you are entering a main road where traffic is not being regulated, give way vehicles passing on your right.
HAND SIGNALS are necessary at certain times.
When slowing down, extend your right arm palm down and swing it up and down; when stopping, raise your forearm vertically outside the vehicle; when turning right or changing lane to the right hand side, extend your right arm straight out, palm to the front; when turning left or changing lane to the left hand side, extend your right arm and rotate it in an anti-clockwise direction. To allow the vehicle behind you to overtake, swing your right arm backward and forward in a semi circular motion.
Road markings include all lines patters, words and colours applied on or attached to the road surface, for the said purpose
Bare roads will lead to total vehicular confusion. Markings are painted on the road to direct, guide and regulate the road user.
Traffic paints are commonly used for road markings. Other materials such as, road studs, cat's eyes and thermoplastic strips also find their application in road markings
. These markings promote road safety and ensure
smooth flow of traffic. Sometimes, road markings are used to supplement the message of road signs and other devices.
White is generally used for carriageway (road) markings except those indicating restrictions for which yellow markings are used. White or yellow together with black are used for kerb and object marking
Centre line marking for a two lane road
On undivided two-way roads, the centre line separates the opposing streams of traffic and facilitates their movements. The centre line can be a single broken line, a single continous solid line, a double solid line or a combination of solid line and broken line. Single and double solid lines, whether white or yellow, must not be crossed or even straddled.
On a road with two centre lines, of which one is solid and the other broken, the solid line has significance only it it is on the left side of the combination as viewed by the driver. In such a case, the driver must be careful not to cross or straddle the centre line.
Lane Line and broken centre line
Centre barrier line marking for a four lane road
Centre barrier line marking for a six lane road
Double white/yellow lines
Double Continuous lines are used where visibility is restricted in both directions. Neither stream of traffic is allowed to cross the lines.
Combination of solid and broken lines If the line on your side is broken, you may cross Over Take - but only if it is safe to do so.
If the line on your side is continious you must not cross or straddle it.
A stop line is a single solid transverse line painted before the intersecting edge of the road junction/ This line indicates where you are required to stop when directed by traffic police, traffic light of stop sign. Where a pedestrian crossing is provided, the stop line is marked before the pedestrian crossing.
Give way Line
The give way line is usually a double dotted line marked transversely at junctions. These lines are generally supplemented by a reverse triangle give way sign painted on the road surface before the dotted lines Give way to traffic on the main approaching road.
Separation of lanes on which travel is in the same direction, with crossing from one to the other permitted.
Separation of lanes on which travel is in the opposite direction, and where overtaking with care is permitted.
Separation of lanes or of a lane and shoulder where lane changing is discouraged
This line is found on busy main roads and traffic intersection. Here crossing this line and overtaking is prohibited.
Separation of lanes overtaking is prohibited in both directions. Right turn monoeuvres across this marking are not permitted.
Solid + Broken
Separation of lanes where overtaing is permitted with care for traffic . adjacent to the broken line, but prohibited for traffic adjacent to solid line.