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Sk.RAFI Roll no.


ENERGY storage systems (ESSs) are of critical importance in hybrid electric vehicles Batteries are one of the most widely used among energy storage systems

In battery-based ESSs, power density of the battery needs to be high enough to meet the peak power demand

Applications of instantaneous power input and output -- batteries suffering from frequent charge and discharge operations which have an adverse effect on battery life To solve the problems hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) have been proposed

The basic idea of an HESS is to combine ultracapacitors (UCs) and batteries to achieve a better overall performance UCs have a high power density, but a lower energy density. This combination inherently offers better performance in comparison to the use of either of them alone Based on the use of power electronic converters in the configurations Several configurations for HESS designs have been proposed.

Ultracapacitors technology: construction Double-layer technology pacitor-image.jpg

Electrodes: Activated carbon (carbon cloth, carbon black, aerogel carbon, particulate from SiC, particulate from TiC) Electrolyte: KOH, organic solutions, sulfuric acid.

Ultracapacitors technology: construction
Traditional standard capacitor Double layer capacitor (ultracapacitor) Ultracapacitor with carbon nano-tubes electrodes

A d Key principle: area is increased and distance is decreased C

The charge of ultracapacitors, IEEE Spectrum Nov. 2007

There are some similarities with batteries but there are no reactions here.

Ultracapacitors technology: construction

Some typical Maxwells ultracapacitor packages:

At 2.7 V, a BCAP2000 capacitor can store more than 7000 J in the volume of a soda can. In comparison a 1.5 mF, 500 V electrolytic capacitor can store less than 200 J in the same volume.

Comparison with other capacitor technologies

The topologies of hybrid energy storage systems (HESS)

Basic passive parallel hybrid configuration

UC/battery configuration.

Battery/UC configuration

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS of Hybrid energy storage systems

Voltage Strategy of the Two Energy Sources
i) VBatt < Vuc = Vdc ii) VBatt = Vuc = Vdc iii) VBatt = Vuc = Vdc

Effective Utilization of UC Stored Energy

Protection of the Battery From Overcurrent HESS Total Cost i) UC cost is a major component of the overall HESS system cost ii) Power handling capacity of the converter is another important factor

PROPOSED Hybrid energy storage systems

Conventional HESS connects the UC via a dc/dc converter to satisfy the real-time peak power demands of the powertrain controller This will require the dc/dc converter to have the same power capability as the UC bank or at least higher than the maximum possible demand value

The proposed HESS achieves this in a different way, which can be considered an application of the averaging concept Different from the conventional HESS designs, the high-voltage dc link is allowed to vary in a predefined ratio.

Modes of Operation
Vehicle Low Constant Speed Operation If Pdmd is equal to or smaller than Pconv , we call this operating condition the low constant speed mode

Vehicle High Constant Speed Operation In the high constant speed operating mode, Pdmd > Pconv , (Condition: VUC < VBatt ) Therefore, the main power diode is forward biased.

Energy flow of the Acceleration mode phase I At the beginning of the acceleration mode, assume VUC >VBatt . Since Pconv < Pdmd, VUC will keep decreasing
Energies from the UC and the dc/dc converter are both supporting the vehicle acceleration. Energy flow of the Acceleration mode phase II In the high constant speed operating mode, if Pdmd <Pconv , the power difference between Pconv and Pdmd will be used to charge the UC.

Energy flow of Regenerative braking phase I when VUC< VUC _tgt In phase I, the regenerative power will be injected into the UC only When depending VUC < target UC Boost Operation

Energy flow of Regenerative braking phase I when VUC>=VUC _tgt voltage VUC_tgt >= to the target VUC
No Operation

Energy flow Regenerative braking phase II The dc/dc converter will work in buck mode to convey the energy from the UC to the battery

The new design is able to fully utilize the power capability of the UCs without requiring a matching power dc/dc converter. Smoother load profile is created for the battery pack results power requirement of the battery pack reduced

Drivability of the vehicle at low temperatures can be improved as well

proposed HESS requires a smaller size dc/dc converter to convey energy to charge the UC bank, while still utilizing up to 75% of the UC energy A relatively constant load profile is created for the battery by using the topology which is good for the life of the battery

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