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Focusing on Instructional Strategies

LESSON
PLANNING

Chapter 5
Pages 241 - 253
Focusing on Lesson Planning
Objectives:
•To discuss the relationship between how the brain processes information
and a lesson plan.
•To model a “brain-friendly” lesson using Thinking Maps.

How the Brain Thinking Maps


Welcome Processes for different
and Information stages of a
Agenda (Flow Map) lesson (Model
Lesson)

Planning Closure and


time for expectations A Language for
classroom for sharing Learning
applications. student work
Chapter 5
Pages 241 - 253
You can use Thinking Maps for
Curriculum and Lesson Planning.

You have embedded Thinking


Maps in other instructional
You Have strategies.
Integrated
Thinking Maps You and your students construct
Thinking Maps for a variety of
for Effective applications in order to explain,
Instructional revise, and synthesize ideas.
Strategies
Your students use multiple
CHAPTER 5 Thinking Maps in collaborative
team work.
INSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES
You use Thinking Maps
independently across disciplines
Page 233
to encourage student meta-
cognition, self-reflection, and
Page 234
WHY ? ? ?
…can you remember exactly where you were & what you
were doing on September 11th?
…can you recognize a person’s face, but not remember
his/her name?
…can you hear an “oldie” and remember every word in the
song, even though you haven’t sung that song in years?
…do you buy a new car, then constantly see it everywhere
you go?
…can you drive a familiar route and when you arrive, you
can’t really remember how you got there?
…do you feel “brain dead” after hours of staff
development?
HOW SCIENTISTS STUDY THE BRAIN

People with
Animal Brain Laboratory Brain-Imaging
Research Damage Experiments Technology

Basic neural War and Observe eye Chemical


mechanisms accident movements
MRI and
and processes victims during a
fMRI
are similar in specific task
all animals
Look at
Electrical
general Timing
Marine snails location, response EEG and
and learning compare to rates SQUID,
and memory those BEAM
without
damage, Stroop test:
Rats and the draw the word red Blood Flow
environment conclusion in blue ink
PET
Page 241

How Does the Brain Process Information?


How Can Thinking Maps Enhance the Process?

1. How does the brain decide what


to PAY ATTENTION to?

2. How much information can the


brain handle for how long?

3. What causes information to move


from short term memory to long term
memory?
How the Brain Processes Information
Page 242 Lost

Senses Areas in the Brain


Register
Information Filter Information
Long
Term
Emotion Meaning
Memory

Building
Networks
Networks Strengthened

Networks
Lost Extended
The Pathways of Attention
Why set a purpose for
reading, viewing,
listening?

“The brain’s
susceptibility to
paying attention
is very much
influenced by
priming.”
(Marzano, p?)
LESSON PLANNING Page 246

Diagnosing Prior Knowledge


or Set/Hook

Getting the Brain’s Attention


LESSON PLANNING Page 247

GOAL SETTING

Getting the Brain’s Attention


LESSON PLANNING Page 247

Diagnosing Prior Knowledge


or Set/Hook

Getting the Brain Focused

The Multi-Flow Map helps


students connect their
prior experiences or
knowledge to an
The Bridge Map helps upcoming concept or
connect what students theme.
already know to what they
will be learning.
LESSON PLANNING Page 248

Diagnosing Prior Knowledge


K-W-L
LESSON PLANNING Page 249

Diagnosing Prior Knowledge


Ready, Set, Go, Whoa!
Now You Try

Think about a lesson you will be teaching in the


next few days. Work with a partner or alone
to plan how you could use one of the maps
ideas mentioned to either diagnose your
students’ prior knowledge or get them
personally connected to the upcoming lesson.
.
“For the brain to construct knowledge
and behaviors, it must take in data that it
can use for construction.”
“The Brains Behind the Brain” Marcia D’Arcangelo

Building
Networks How much data can the brain
take in?
How can Thinking Maps help
the brain take in more?
Lost
MEMORY TEST

7 4 9 3 6 5 1
MEMORY TEST

7 4 9 3 6 5 1
MEMORY TEST

5 2 1 6 3 8 4 7 9 4
MEMORY TEST

5 2 1 6 3 8 4 7 9 4
MEMORY TEST

NB CJ FK TVF BIU SA
MEMORY TEST

NB CJ FK TVF BIU SA

NBC JFK TV FBI USA


Page 142

“Students miss much of the


original data (up to 50
percent) when the cognitive
strategies were not fully or
partially developed.”

“Building Learning Structures Inside the Head” Ruby Payne, Ph.D.


BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER INSTRUCTION Page 250
DURING INSTRUCTION Page 251

“Verbatim note taking is,

perhaps, the least effective

way to take notes. When

students are trying to

record everything they hear

or read, they are not

engaged in the act of

synthesizing information.”

Marzano, p. 43)
Now You Try

Think about a lesson you will be teaching in the


next few days. Work with a partner or alone
to plan how you could use one of the maps
ideas mentioned to cause students to be
actively engaged during instruction.
How is information “moved” to LTM?
How can Thinking Maps help?
Long
How can Thinking Maps help the learner
strengthen or extend neural networks? Term
Memory

Networks
Strengthened

Networks
Extended
Teacher Time – 20-40%
Student Time 60-80%
Students should spend time processing,
discussions, group work, self-assessment,
journal writing, feedback, mapping, review,
memorization.

The brain learns best when it


DOES, not ABSORBS!
“Teach Me, Teach My Brain: A Call for Differentiated Classrooms.” Carol
Tomlinson and M. Layne Kalbfleisch. Educational Leadership. 1998.
Vol.56, No. 3.
Networks are
Extended Networks are
Strengthened

From A Celebration of Neurons, Robert Sylwester, 1995


Impoverished
Marion Diamond. Magic Trees of the Mind.
Environment

Stupid Smart
Toys Toy

Enriched
Environment

Smart
Smart
Toys
Toys
Page 252
LESSON PLANNING: CLOSURE

Thinking Critically: Compare


the British and American
soldiers during the
Revolutionary War. (Double
Bubble Map) From your
comparison, predict who might
be the winner. (Frame of
“What was the Reference)
mood of the
Second
Continental
Congress? And
why?
LESSON PLANNING: CLOSURE Page 253

TO TO TO
TEXT SELF WORLD
Now You Try

Think about a lesson you will be


teaching in the next few days. Work
with a partner or alone to plan how
you could use one of the maps
ideas mentioned to help students
summarize, process, and extend
what they have learned.
A MODEL LESSON: Using Thinking
Maps Throughout a Lesson
Diagnosing Prior Knowledge
or Set/Hook

Getting the Brain’s Attention


Diagnosing Prior Knowledge
or Set/Hook

Getting the Brain’s Attention


Diagnosing Prior Knowledge
or Set/Hook

Getting the Brain’s Attention


DURING
INSTRUCTION

THANK YOU
M’AM
By
LANGSTON
HUGHES
LESSON PLANNING: CLOSURE

Task Card

Describe Mrs. Jones using


adjectives stated in the text (in
the short bubble) and
descriptors you can infer (long
bubbles). Add a Frame of
Reference and cite evidence
from the text to support any
descriptors you inferred.
LESSON PLANNING: CLOSURE

Task Card

Describe Roger at the beginning, middle and end of the


story. Use descriptors given in the text as well as
descriptors that you can infer. Add a Frame of Reference
and draw some conclusions about his change over time.
LESSON PLANNING: CLOSURE

Task Card

Compare and contrast Mrs.


Jones and Roger.
Concentrate on discussing
common characteristics that
you think the author thinks
are important. Be sure to
include important
differences as well. Add a
Frame of Reference and cite
evidence from the text to
support your conclusions.
LESSON PLANNING: CLOSURE

Task Card

Identify the parts of Mrs. Jones’ room. Identify specific parts of the room
given in the story as well as inferences you can make about the area.
Add a Frame of Reference and draw some conclusions about the
influences on Mrs. Jones’ character that are influencing the room.
Discuss why your team thinks Hughes spent so much time on the parts of
her room.
LESSON PLANNING: CLOSURE

Task Card

Construct a Multi-Flow identifying the causes and effects of


Roger trying to steal from Mrs. Jones. Use details from the
story as well as inferences you make. Focus on differentiating
between long-term causes and effects and short-term causes
and effects. Add a Frame of Reference and include information
that is influencing your map.
LESSON PLANNING: CLOSURE

Task Card

Construct 4 different Flow Maps to sequence the events in this


story. The first Flow Map should retell the story in 8 boxes; the
second should have 5 boxes; the third should summarize the
story in 3 boxes. Add a final Flow Map to predict the next 4
events in Roger’s life after he leaves Mrs. Jones.
PRESENTATIONS

Decide how your team will “take


the information off of your map”
and share your thinking with the
whole group.
CLOSURE
Take some time to meet by grade level or
department in order to review the lesson plan
you have created. In the next few weeks,
teach the lesson you have planned and try to
incorporate Thinking Maps throughout your
other lessons.
Save your students’ work and be prepared to
share their examples at our next follow-up
session.