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Focusing on Literacy Links

Academic
Vocabulary
Development
Chapter 3
Pages 131 - 141
Page 127 Your students are
beginning to use Thinking
Maps to deepen their
understanding of academic
vocabulary.

You Have You have modeled the use


Applied of Thinking Maps for writing
across the curriculum.
Thinking
Maps to
Literacy Skills You have integrated the use
of Thinking Maps with your
students’ note taking
strategies.
CHAPTER 3
LITERACY Your students are beginning
to use Thinking Maps as
LINKS
strategies to improve their
reading comprehension.
Focusing on Academic Vocabulary
Objective:
•To apply Thinking Maps to strategies for Academic Vocabulary development.

Direct
Welcome Vocabulary Vocabulary
and Research Instruction
Agenda Connections ideas using
Thinking Maps

Planning Closure and


time for expectations A Language for
classroom for sharing Learning
applications. student work
Chapter 3
Pages 131-141
What is being Page 131
described?

Beck, McKeown,
Kucan. Bringing
Words to Life:
Robust Vocabulary
Instruction. 2002.
Page 131

Scientifically-based
Put Reading First research about
vocabulary Instruction.
Page 132

INDIRECT
VOCABULARY
DEVELOPMENT

When students
create Thinking
Maps as they read a
piece of text, they
are indirectly
learning vocabulary
because they are
using academic
vocabulary words
in context as they
develop their maps.
Page 132

INDIRECT
VOCABULARY
DEVELOPMENT
Page 133
INDIRECT VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
ACTIVITY

Work with a Circle the


Read the article. partner to “map” academic
the information vocabulary in
from the article. your map.

Did you learn about and use the vocabulary of the


content as you made your map(s)?
Look at the maps
you made from the
Red Alert article on
Day One.

Are there any


academic
vocabulary words
in the maps?
Page 134

Scientifically-based
Put Reading First research about
vocabulary Instruction.
“How the Brain
Reads Words”
Sally Shaywitz, MD

Reading is
NOT a
natural,
automatic
JULY 2003
process for
the brain.
Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency,
Vocabulary Development, Text Comprehension

1 3

“Overcoming Dyslexia” Time July 28, 2003


This section of the brain
helps a person vocalize
words – silently or out
loud. It also starts to
analyze phonemes. This
section is especially
“Overcoming Dyslexia” Time active in the brains of
July 28, 2003
beginning readers.
This section of the brain
does a more complete
analysis of written
words. Here they are
pulled apart into their
constituent syllables
and phonemes, and
letters are linked to the
“Overcoming Dyslexia” Time
appropriate sounds. July 28, 2003
The job of this part of the brain
is to automate the process of
recognizing words. The more
the automatic detector is
activated, the better it
functions. Skilled readers can
breeze through print with
assembly-line-like speed.
“Overcoming Dyslexia”
Time July 28, 2003
Acocdrnig to an elgnsih unviesitry sutdy
the oredr of letetrs in a word dosen’t
mttaer, the olny thing that’s iopmrantt is
that the frsit and lsat ltteer of eery word
is in the crcreot ptoision. The rset can
be jmbueld and one is stlil able to raed
the txet wiohtut dciftfuiiy.
2
1 3

Background knowledge of
vocabulary is essential to
developing fluency and
comprehension.
Research Says…
Systematic vocabulary instruction is one of the
most important instructional interventions that
teachers can use, particularly with low-achieving
students.

Marzano, 2004
Page 134

RESEARCH CONNECTIONS

• Students need to be exposed to a word at


least six times in context to learn the
meaning of the word.

• Even superficial instruction of new words


enhances learning those words in
context.

• One of the best ways to learn a new word


is to associate a mental image or
symbolic representation with it.
Page 134

RESEARCH CONNECTIONS

• Direct vocabulary instruction works.

• Direct instruction on words that are


critical to new content produces the
most powerful learning.
When students read new
information and
comprehension is assessed:

If there is some regular 12%ile


vocabulary instruction:
gain

If the direct instruction


is for words that are 33%ile
critical to academic gain
content:
Page 135

A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms


These two steps should be
Ask students to Ask students to
Providedone
a orally with therestate
teacher
the construct a
description,
leading the discussion. The
description, picture, symbol,
explanation, or
activities to be discussed in or
explanation, or graphic
example of the
this follow-up should
examplebein their representing the
new term.
completed only afterownthese
words. term or phrase.
first two steps.

Engage students Involve students


in activities that Periodically ask
periodically in
help them add to students to
games that allow
their knowledge of discuss the terms
them to play with
the terms in their with one another.
terms.
notebooks.

Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement


Debra Pickering and Robert Marzano
Create a Tree Map
to identify words
that are critical to
academic content
for several units
you will be
teaching this year.
A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms

Ask students to Ask students to


Provide a
restate the construct a
description,
description, picture, symbol,
explanation, or
explanation, or or graphic
example of the
example in their representing the
new term.
own words. term or phrase.

Engage students Involve students


in activities that Periodically ask
periodically in
help them add to students to
games that allow
their knowledge of discuss the terms
them to play with
the terms in their with one another.
terms.
notebooks.

Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement


Debra Pickering and Robert Marzano Page 135
Page 137

What
strategies do
you use to
determine
the meaning
of a word?
Definition Page 137

Examples Illustration
Migration is
the movement
of people,
animals, and
things

In the fall,
there is a
migration of
birds flying
south
Migration

• move away • movement


• shifting • journey
• fly south • voyage
Essential Characteristics Nonessential Characteristics

Examples
Essential Characteristics Nonessential Characteristics

Northerner
A person
seeking the
legal end Race
to slavery
in the US
Abolitionist

John Brown Harriet


Beecher
Harriet Tubman Stowe

Frederick Douglass

Examples
What is it? (Category) What is it like? (Properties)

Illustrations (What are some examples?)


What is it? (Category) What is it like? (Properties)

closed

Mathematical Plane
shape figure
Straight
sides
Geometric
shape polygon Two-
dimensional

pentagon
hexagon

rhombus

Illustrations (What are some examples?)


Illustration Word
Parts
one
desk

Synonyms
Context
clues
NOW IT IS YOUR TURN

• Look over your vocabulary list.


• Create a Circle Map similar to one of the
previous maps with one of your
vocabulary words.
Add a Frame Essential
of Reference characteristics
or examples

Illustration

Choose
one word
from your
list.
Choose the 3 or
4 best ways to
define your word
and write each in
one area of the
Personal frame.
associations
What are some
Essential examples? What is it?
Characteristics (Category)

Non-essential
What is it like? Characteristics
(Properties)

Definitions

Paraphrase or
Define in your
Word parts own words

Personal
Visual Association or
Representations Related words Characteristics
A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms

Ask students to Ask students to


Provide a
restate the construct a
description,
description, picture, symbol,
explanation, or
explanation, or or graphic
example of the
example in their representing the
new term.
own words. term or phrase.

Engage students Involve students


in activities that Periodically ask
periodically in
help them add to students to
games that allow
their knowledge of discuss the terms
them to play with
the terms in their with one another.
terms.
notebooks.

Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement


Debra Pickering and Robert Marzano Page 135
Page 138
WORD
PARTS

“Teaching word parts


enhances students’
understanding of terms.”

Robert Marzano
Color code the different
parts of the word.
Add the
meaning of
each part in
parentheses.
Use the
meaning of
each part to
write the
definition of
the whole
word.
Page 138
NOW IT IS YOUR TURN

• Look over your vocabulary list.


• Create a Brace Map similar to one of the
previous maps with one of your
vocabulary words.
A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms

Ask students to Ask students to


Provide a
restate the construct a
description,
description, picture, symbol,
explanation, or
explanation, or or graphic
example of the
example in their representing the
new term.
own words. term or phrase.

Engage students Involve students


in activities that Periodically ask
periodically in
help them add to students to
games that allow
their knowledge of discuss the terms
them to play with
the terms in their with one another.
terms.
notebooks.

Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement


Debra Pickering and Robert Marzano Page 135
Step 4: Engage students periodically in activities that help
them add to their knowledge of the terms in their
notebooks.

Comparing Terms
Classifying Terms
Solving Analogy Problems

Marzano, 2004
Page 139

Notice the
color coding.
Comparing Enhances Meaning
A monarchy and a dictatorship are similar
because they both ________________.
________________. ________________.
A monarchy and a dictatorship are different
because
a monarchy___, but a dictatorship____.
a monarchy___, but a dictatorship____.
a monarchy___, but a dictatorship____.
NOW IT IS YOUR TURN

• Look over your vocabulary list.


• Do you have two words on your
vocabulary list that are students could
compare and contrast in order to better
understand each word?
• Choose two words and create a Double
Bubble Map.
A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms

Ask students to Ask students to


Provide a
restate the construct a
description,
description, picture, symbol,
explanation, or
explanation, or or graphic
example of the
example in their representing the
new term.
own words. term or phrase.

Engage students Involve students


in activities that Periodically ask
periodically in
help them add to students to
games that allow
their knowledge of discuss the terms
them to play with
the terms in their with one another.
terms.
notebooks.

Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement


Debra Pickering and Robert Marzano Page 135
Step 4: Engage students periodically in activities that help
them add to their knowledge of the terms in their
notebooks.

Comparing Terms
Classifying Terms
Solving Analogy Problems

Marzano, 2004
Step 1 Page 140

Select one or two academic


vocabulary words that have
an identifiable relationship.
Create the beginning of a
Bridge Map and write the
relating factor.
Step 2 Page 140

Identify two words that students


would know that have a similar
relationship and complete the
Bridge Map.
This second
Challenge students to continue to relationship
add related pairs of words. will “anchor”
the first pair of
words.
Solving Analogy Problems

document book
as

portfolio backpack
…is carried in
…relating factor
The anchor
pair

compound as batter
elements ingredients

…is a new substance made up of


…relating factor
The generation
of these
Nonlinguistic
Representations
has caused the
learner to
elaborate on his
knowledge.

RF: Provide(s) a plan for building


Power Plant

mitochondria
Dispelling misconceptions about atomic structure
NOW IT IS YOUR TURN

• Look over your vocabulary list.


• Do you have one or two words on your list that
students could use to create a Bridge Map?
• Create a Bridge Map with an “anchor” pair and
one or two words from your vocabulary list.
A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms

Ask students to Ask students to


Provide a
restate the construct a
description,
description, picture, symbol,
explanation, or
explanation, or or graphic
example of the
example in their representing the
new term.
own words. term or phrase.

Engage students Involve students


in activities that Periodically ask
periodically in
help them add to students to
games that allow
their knowledge of discuss the terms
them to play with
the terms in their with one another.
terms.
notebooks.

Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement


Debra Pickering and Robert Marzano Page 135
Close your textbooks.

Vocabulary Demonstration!

or . . .

A Game
Let’s
Practice
Things associated with
EDUCATION

Schools
Professional Development
Administration
State Standards
Assessment
Students
Success
Things associated with FOOD
Grocery Store
Farm
Animals
Aluminum Can
Cardboard Box
Restaurant
Fruit
Dieting
What is the point?
Partner A:
• What strategies did you
use to get your partner to
identify the words?
• Did your strategies
change during the game?

Partner B:
• What strategies did you
use to identify the words?
Things associated with Children
Playground
Schoolwork
Adolescence
Disney World
Crib
Kindergarten
Toys ‘R Us
Maternity Ward
Things associated with Topography

Plateau
Mountain
Bay
Desert
Grassland
Elevation
Sea level
Valley
Page 141

After the game, students should record the


clues, illustrations, examples that helped
them guess each vocabulary word.
CLOSURE

• Look over the vocabulary maps you have


created. Think about how you might use
these activities in your classroom.
• In the next few weeks, try these ideas in your
classroom.

Save your students’ work and be prepared to


share their examples at our next follow-up
session.