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Prof. Rosenthal

2

**What is a binary number?
**

• A binary number is a number that includes only ones and zeroes. • The number could be of any length • The following are all examples of binary numbers

0 1 10 01 111000 10101 0101010 1011110101 0110101110 000111

• Another name for binary is base-2 (pronounced "base two")

3

**What is a decimal number?
**

• The numbers that we are used to seeing are called decimal numbers. • decimal numbers consist of the digits from 0 (zero) through 9. • The following are examples of decimal #'rs

3 15 890 76 32423234 53

• Another name for decimal numbers are base-10 (pronounced "base ten") numbers.

4 Equivalence of Binary and Decimal • • Every Binary number has a corresponding Decimal value (and vice versa) Examples: Binary Number 1 10 11 … 1010111 Decimal Equivalent 1 2 3 … 87 .

5 The value of a binary number • Even though they look exactly the same. is equal to one hundred and one • When you see a number that consists of only ones and zeroes. . 101.e. is different from the value of the decimal number. 5) – The value of the decimal number. 101. – The value of the binary number. 101. the value of the binary number. is equal to the decimal number five (i. 101. you must be told if it is a binary number or a decimal number.

Computers store information using binary numbers .

if we can derive a way to store and retrieve numbers electronically this method can be used by computers to store and retieve any type of information. This includes – numeric information – textual information and – Picutures 7 (We’ll see later how text and pictures can be converted into simple numbers … for now just take our word for it. .) • Therefore.All information on computers is stored as numbers • All information that is processed by computers is converted in one way or another into a sequence of numbers.

8

**How does a CD store information?
**

• For detailed information about a CD works, see the following URL: http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/cd.htm • This presentation will only focus on the very basics.

9

**Information is stored using binary numbers
**

• A binary number is simply a bunch of 1’s and 0’s • CD’s that are created in a factory (we’re not talking about CD-R’s yet) may look perfectly flat. However, there are many microscopic “bumps” on the surface of the CD. • The bumps are laid out in a spiral form on the surface of the CD. •

•

How a computer stores information

Integers).234 0. • Common types of information that are stored by computers are : – Whole numbers (i.765 999.5 -1.001 etc – Textual information (including letters. Examples: 3.Binary Numbers are at the heart of how a computer stores all information • Computers Store ALL information using Binary Numbers 11 • Computers use binary numbers in different ways to store different types of information. symbols and digits) • Keep reading … .e. Examples: 8 97 -732 0 -5 etc – Numbers with decimal points.

87) A computer stores integer numbers (i.e. .12 Integers • Integers (e.g. “whole” numbers) simply as the equivalent binary value for that number.

13 Numbers with Decimal Points • Numbers with decimal points (e.] . To get the actual value. – We will NOT discuss here the actual mathematical calculation nor how the computer breaks a number with a decimal point into two integers. a computer stores a number with a decimal point as two different integer numbers (each stored using binary).123) – Internally. the computer performs a mathematical calculation using the two integers to derive the number.g. 87. [NOTE: The two integers are NOT the whole number part and fractional part.

14 Letters and symbols • Letters and symbols – To store letters and symbols. – Computers remember letters and other symbols by storing the binary number for the symbol. the computer assigns every character on the keyboard a numerical value. – For this system to work a standard numbering system needs to be defined and consistently used for all symbols that the computer needs to process. – See the following slide … .

2. Even the digits 0. 60 = < 61 = = 62 = > 63 = ? • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 64 = @ 65 = A 66 = B 67 = C 68 = D 69 = E 70 = F 71 = G 72 = H 73 = I 74 = J 75 = K 76 = L 77 = M 78 = N 79 = O 80 = P 81 = Q 82 = R 83 = S 84 = T 85 = U 86 = V 87 = W 88 = X 89 = Y 90 = Z 91 = [ 92 = \ 93 = ] 94 = ^ 95 = _ • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 96 = ` 97 = a 98 = b 99 = c 100 = d 101 = e 102 = f 103 = g 104 = h 105 = i 106 = j 107 = k 108 = l 109 = m 110 = n 111 = o 112 = p 113 = q 114 = r 115 = s 116 = t 117 = u 118 = v 119 = w 120 = x 121 = y 122 = z 123 = { 124 = | 125 = } 126 = ~ • • .…9 have ASCII values. 45 = 46 = . (see next slide) Some ASCII values (values 1-31 and 128 are not shown) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 32 = Space 33 = ! 34 = “ 35 = # 36 = $ 37 = % 38 = & 39 = ` 40 = ( 41 = ) 42 = * 43 = + 44 = .15 ASCII (Americal Standard Code for Information Interchange) • ASCII (Americal Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the standard numbering given to all characters on a standard keyboard. 47 = / 48 = 0 49 = 1 50 = 2 51 = 3 52 = 4 53 = 5 54 = 6 55 = 7 56 = 8 57 = 9 58 = : 59 = . Some “ASCII values” and their associated symbols are listed to the right. Note that EVERY symbol on a standard keyboard has an ASCII value.1. “ASCII values” range in number from 1 to 128.

– Example 5 would be stored using its ASCII value of 53 which is represented in binary as 00110101 . – This makes it easier for the computer to perform mathematical calculations with the number. a zip code) then it will generally store the number using the ASCII values of the digits. – In this case using the ASCII value is more efficient (for reasons we will not explain here). – Example: 5 would be stored as 00000101 • Numbers that are NOT used in mathematical calculations – If the computer does NOT need to do math with the number (e.g.16 Why do 0 through 9 have ASCII values? • Numbers that are used in mathematical calculations – If a computer needs to do math with a number it will store that number using the appropriate binary representation of the number.

English pound sign. – It is very similar to ASCII but uses different numbers to represent the symbols. the English pound sign) – Unicode defines a unique number for every symbol in all known languages (e.g. Chinese. Chinese. – It should be noted that Unicode numbers 1-128 correspond to the EXACT SAME symbols as ASCII 1-128 . 17 • EBCDIC – Is a different numbering system used by IBM Mainframe computers. – Modern programs are moving towards using Unicode to store letters and symbols. copyright symbol.g. – EBCDIC stands for “Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code” • Unicode – ASCII and EBCDIC are limited to just the basic English letters and common symbols. etc). etc.g. Hebrew.Other numbering systems (Unicode and EBCDIC) • ASCII – ASCII was the standard numbering system for many years and is still used widely today. – Today computers use many different symbols including letters from languages that don’t use English letters (e.) and commonly used non-letter symbols (e.) and international symbols (e.g. Hebrew. etc.

How to Convert from Binary to Decimal .

19 Converting from binary to decimal • • • • Each position for a binary number has a value. For each digit. multiply the digit by its position value Add up all of the products to get the final result The decimal value of binary 101 is computed below: 4 2 1 -------------------------------------- 1 0 1 1X1 1X4 0X2 =1 =0 =4 ---5 .

20 What about a longer number? • In general. i.e. eight The 2nd position value is 24 . two The 2nd position value is 22 . – – – – – – The first position value is 20 .e. • Example on next slide . i. sixteen etc. i. four The 2nd position value is 23 . i. the "position values" in a binary number are the powers of two.e.e.e. one The 2nd position value is 21 . i.

This is worked out below: 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 0 1 1 0 1 0 0X4 0 0X2 1 1X1 =1 =0 =0 =8 =0 = 32 = 64 =0 ---Answer: 105 1X8 0 X 16 1 X 32 1 X 64 0 X 128 .21 Example • The value of binary 01100001 is decimal 105.

22 Another example • The value of binary 10011100 is decimal 156. This is worked out below: 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 0 0 1 1 1 1X4 0 0X2 0 0X1 =0 =0 =4 =8 = 16 =0 =0 = 128 ---Answer: 156 1X8 1 X 16 0 X 32 0 X 64 1 X 128 .

23 Some Terminology • The following are some terms that are used in the computer field – Each digit of a binary number is called a bit.e. digits) is called a byte. – A binary number with eight bits (i. .

e. decimal 1) (i. decimal 3) .e. decimal 0) (i.e. decimal 2) (i.24 How many different numbers? • There are two different binary numbers with one bit: – 0 – 1 • There are four different binary numbers with two bits: – – – – 00 01 10 11 (i.e.

25 How many different numbers? • There are eight different binary numbers with three bits: – – – – – – – – 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 (i.e. decimal 0) (i.e.e. decimal 6) (i. decimal 5) (i.e.e. decimal 2) (i. decimal 7) . decimal 3) (i. decimal 1) (i.e.e. decimal 4) (i.e.

26 # different numbers . # of different binary numbers 21 = 2 22 = 4 23 = 8 24 = 16 25 = 32 26 = 64 27 = 128 28 = 256 29 = 512 210 = 1024 .General Rule • For n bits there are 2n different binary numbers: # of bits 1 bit: 2 bits: 3 bits: 4 bits: 5 bits: 6 bits: 7 bits: 8 bits: 9 bits: 10 bits: etc.

• This is the case when all bits are zero: .27 Smallest value for a binary # • The smallest value for a binary number of any number of bits is zero.

when all the bits are zeros) # of bits 1 bit: 2 bits: 3 bits: 4 bits: 5 bits: 6 bits: 7 bits: 8 bits: etc.e.28 Smallest value for a binary # • The smallest value for a binary number with any number of bits is zero (i. smallest binary # 0 00 000 0000 00000 000000 0000000 00000000 decimal value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .

the largest possible value is : 2n . • General rule: for a binary number with n bits. digits) is when all of the bits are one.29 Largest value for a binary # • The largest value for a binary number with a specific number of bits (i.1 .e.

30 Largest numbers • The following are the largest values for binary numbers with a specific number of bits: # of bits 1 bit: 2 bits: 3 bits: 4 bits: 5 bits: 6 bits: 7 bits: 8 bits: etc. largest binary # 1 11 111 1111 11111 111111 1111111 11111111 decimal value 1 3 7 15 31 63 127 255 .

you will need at least 5 bits.31 Converting a decimal# to a binary# (1) • Step 1: figure out how many bits you will need (see the chart on the previous slide). (With 4 bits you can only store numbers up to 15 but with 5 bits you can store numbers up to 31) – Example 2: To convert the decimal number 106 to binary. you will need at least 7 bits. (With 6 bits you can only store numbers up to 63 but with 7 bits you can store numbers up to 127) . – Example 1: To convert the decimal number 16 to binary.

• Example: convert decimal 106 to binary – step 1 : figure out that you need 7 bits (see earlier slides) – step 2 : keep track of position values and bits for binary # 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ? ? ? ? ? ? ? .32 Converting a decimal# to a binary# (2) • Step 2: Keep a chart of the position values and the digits for your binary number. At first you will not know what any of the digits will be.

33 Converting a decimal # to binary (3) • Step 3: starting with the leftmost digit. less than or equal to the number you are trying to convert. – if the position value is greater than the number then • make the binary digit in that position zero – if the position value is less than the number then • make the binary digit in that position one • subtract the position value from the decimal # you are trying to convert – if the position value is equal to the number then • make the binary digit in that position one • make the rest of the binary digits zero • you are done . see if the position value is greater than.

34 Converting a decimal # to binary (4) • Step 4: do step 3 again with the next digit. Keep doing this until you've figured out all of the digits. .

therefore • the first binary digit is 1 ? 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? • subtract : 106 .35 Example • Example: convert decimal 106 to binary – Step 1: You need 7 bits (see earlier slides for explination).64 = 42 . – Step 2: keep track of position values for bits 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ? ? ? ? ? ? – Step 3: Check leftmost position value (i. 64) • 64 is less than 105.e.

therefore • the next binary digit is 0 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 1 0 ? ? ? ? .32 = 10 – Step 4(continued): Check next position value (i. 32) • 32 is less than 42.e. therefore • the next binary digit is 1 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 1 ? ? ? ? ? • subtract : 42 .36 Example (continued-2) – Step 4: Check next position value (i.e. 16) • 16 is greater than 10.

e. 8) • 8 is less than 10. therefore • the next binary digit is 0 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 1 0 1 0 ? ? .8 = 2 – Step 4(continued): Check next position value (i. therefore • the next binary digit is 1 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 1 0 1 ? ? ? • subtract : 10 .e.37 Example (continued-3) – Step 4(continued): Check next position value (i. 4) • 4 is greater than 2.

2) • 2 is equal to 2.38 Example (continued-4) – Step 4(continued): Check next position value (i. 2) the rest of the binary digits are all zeros 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 – Answer: 1101010 .e.e. therefore • the next binary digit is 1 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 1 0 1 0 1 ? • Since the position value was equal to the number (i.

e. 20 21 22 23 24 25 etc. ) .39 Why is it called "binary" (or base-2)? • The prefix "bi" means "two" in Latin • Binary derives its name from the fact that the digits in a "Binary" number can only have two possible values. 0 or 1 • It is also called "base-2" based on the fact that the column values are the powers of 2. (i.

Hexadecimal (AKA “Hex”) numbers .

• A “hexadecimal” number is a number where each digit may be one of sixteen possible values. • The possible values for a hexadecimal digit are: 0123456789ABCDEF • A digit of “A” stands for the number 10 “B” stands for the number 11 “C” stands for the number 12 “D” stands for the number 13 “E” stands for the number 14 “F” stands for the number 15 • Keep reading … .41 What is a hexadecimal or base-16 number.

(see next slide) .42 Hexadecimal numbers • The following are all valid hexadecimal nubmers – – – – – – A 9 1001 9C5 BFE Etc. (yes. a hexadecimal number does not HAVE TO contain letters) (yes. a hexadecimal number does not HAVE TO contain letters) • To understand what a specific hexadecimal number means. you can convert it into an equivalent decimal number.

263 10 X 4096 .263.e 161) 43 A 1 1 X 256 2 2 X 16 F 15 X 1 = 15 = 32 = 256 = 40.960 ---Answer: 41.Converting a Hexadecimal number to Decimal • The value of hexadecimal A12F is decimal 41.e 160) ---------------------------------------------------------------------4096 (i.e 163) 256 (i.e 162) 16 (i. See below: 1 (i.

• Each Hex number is 1/4th the length of its equivalent binary number. • Therefore Hex is often used as a “shorthand” for writing an equivalent binary number. • Keep reading … 44 .Hex numbers are a “shorthand” for binary nubmers • It is very easy to convert between Hex and binary numbers.

45 .The numbers from decimal 0 through 15 in hex and binary • Draw a table here with appropriate info.

46 Converting from Hex to Binary .

47 Converting from Binary to Hex .

e.How a computer stores information (i. analog) . decimal vs.

memory to CPU to graphics card. etc) by ones and zeros . • A computer stores all information as binary numbers. • Computer memory simply remembers ones and zeros • Computer storage remembers ones and zeros • Data is passed inside the computer from one portion of the computer to another (e.49 How a computer stores info.g.

e. BIT) • BYTE – definition: 8 bits • NYBLE – definition: 4 bits . etc) • BIT – definition: a single Binary digIT (i.50 Terms (bit. byte.

.51 Prefixes • Prefixes – – – – – – – Kilo: one thousand Mega: one millioin Giga: one billion Tera: one trillion Peta: one quadrillion Exa: one quintillion … etc.

776 bytes .048.073.099.627.576 bytes – Gigabyte (GB) • "about" one billion bytes • exactly 230 or 1.824 bytes – Terabyte (TB) • "about" one trillion bytes • exactly 240 or 1.52 Data sizes • Data sizes – Kilobyte (KB) • "about" one thousand bytes • exactly 210 or 1024 bytes – Megabyte (MB) • "about" one million bytes • exactly 220 or 1.511.741.

53 Data Sizes – bytes vs bits • MB = one Mega Byte • Mb = one Mega Bit .

54 Speeds • MBPS = one MegaByte per second • MbPS = one Mega Bit per second .

an integer) for that character • A decimal number is stored using two different integer values .the mantissa and the exponent .55 How data is stored using binary • Integers are stored as a binary number • A character is stored as the ASCII value (i.e.

56 Organization of Computer Memory .

57 CPU .

58 Passing information on wires .

59 .

Hexadecimal .a shorthand for binary .

b.8.a.7.5.6.2.9.f • A-F – – – – – – a is 10 b is 11 c is 12 d is 13 e is 14 f is 15 .d.c.4.61 Hexadecimal ("Hex") / Base-16 • Base 16 • Uses digits: – 0.e.1.3.

62 Converting from Hex to Decimal .

63 Converting from Decimal to Hex .

64 Applications • HTML : color codes • Shorthand for binary – See hex editor .

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