You are on page 1of 47

Presenter: Emmanuel C.

Revilla BSEd-2U, Physical Sciences

Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear chemistry is the sub discipline of chemistry that is concerned with changes in the nucleus of elements. Nuclear chemistry is the subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties. Nuclear chemistry is the study of the atomic nuclei and the changes it undergoes.

Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear chemistry affects many aspects of our lives everyday. Without nuclear chemistry, life could not exist.

The Discovery of Radioactivity


1895-1898

Nuclear Chemistry
THE DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY

Wilhelm Roentgen
Found that invisible rays were emitted when electrons bombarded the surface of certain materials.

Nuclear Chemistry
THE DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY

Antoine Henri Becquerel


Accidentally discovered that phosphorescent uranium salt produces spontaneous emissions that darkened photographic plate. He saw that photographic plates developed bright spots when exposed to uranium metals.

Nuclear Chemistry
THE DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY

Marie Sklodowska Curie


A pioneer of Radioactivity. In 1898, discovered the elements polonium and radium. Coined the term radioactivity. Winner of the sole 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Nuclear Chemistry THE DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY


Radioactivity
Is the term given to the breaking-up (decay) or rearrangement of an atoms nucleus. Decay occurs naturally and spontaneously to unstable nuclei. This instability is usually caused by a mismatch between the number of protons and neutrons.

Nuclear Chemistry THE DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY


Radiation
Is the term given to a travelling particle or wave. A penetrating ray and particles emitted by a radioactive source. It can be split into three main types: 1. Non-ionizing radiation 2. Ionizing radiation 3. Neutrons

Nuclear Chemistry
THE DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY

COSMIC AND TERRESTRIAL RADIATION


Cosmic Radiation- results from the interaction of cosmic rays with the upper layers of the Earths atmosphere. Terrestrial Radiation- is due to the presence of highly radioactive substances rising to Earths surface from the crust.

Nuclear Chemistry
THE DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY

Ernest Rutherford Discovered Alpha and Beta and


Gamma rays.

Nuclear Chemistry
THE DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY

James Chadwick Received a Nobel Prize in Physics


in 1935 for his discovery of the neutron

Nuclear Chemistry
THE DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY

Lise Meitner Interpreted Otto Hahns experimental


observation as conformation that he had split a uranium nucleus.

Nuclear Chemistry
THE DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY

J. Robert Oppenheimer and Leslie Groves At the remains of a tower used in the test
of the first atomic bomb.

Nuclear Chemistry
THE DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY

Albert Einstein He discovered the equation that


relates mass and energy.

Nuclear Reactions

Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Reaction

Chemical Reaction
Occur when bonds are broken. Atom remains unchanged although they may be rearranged. Involve only valence electrons. Associated with small energy changes. Reaction rate influenced by temperature, particle size and concentration.

Nuclear Reaction
Occur when nuclei emit particles and/or rays. Atoms often converted into atoms of another element. May involve protons, neutrons and electrons. Associated with large energy changes. Reaction rate is not influenced by temperature, particle size and concentration.

Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Reaction

Nuclear Reaction is a process in which two nuclei or nuclear particles collide, to produce different products than the initial particles.

Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Reaction

Types of Nuclear Reaction


1. Radioactive Decay - alpha, beta and gamma ray emission 2. Nuclear Integration - emission of proton and neutron

Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Reaction

TYPES OF RADIOACTIVE DECAY

Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Reaction

Types of Radioactive Decay Alpha Beta Gamma

Change in Mass # -4 0 0

Change in Atomic # -2 +1 0

Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Reaction

Alpha Decay - emission of alpha particles. Example : 23892U ----> 42He + 23490Th

Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Reaction

Beta Decay - emission of beta particles. - This type of decay process leaves the mass number of the nuclei unchanged.
Example : 3215P ----> 0-1e + 3216S

Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Reaction

Positron Emission - This type of particle production is the opposite of Beta particle decay.
Example : Na ----> 0 1e + Ne

Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Reaction

Gamma Decay - emission of electromagnetic energy (gamma rays). - often accompany other processes of decay such as alpha or beta.
Example: 23892U ----> 23490Th + 200 + 42He

Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Reaction
Nucleus 99.9% of the mass of atom Composed of protons and neutrons Electrons 0.01 % of mass of atom Composed of electrons

Positively charged Strong Nuclear force

Negatively charged Weak electrostatic force

Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Reaction

Nuclear Fission vs Nuclear Fusion

Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Reaction

Nuclear Fission
- The word fission means a splitting or breaking up into parts. - Nuclear fission takes place when a large, somewhat unstable isotope is bombarded by highspeed particles, usually neutrons. These neutrons are accelerated and then slammed into the unstable isotope, causing it to fission, or break into smaller particles.

Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Reaction

Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Reaction

Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Reaction

Nuclear Fusion
- The word fusion means a merging of separate elements into a unified whole. - Nuclear fusion refers to the union of atomic nuclei to form heavier nuclei resulting in the release of enormous amounts of energy.

Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Reaction

Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Reaction

HALF-LIFE

Nuclear Chmistry
Half-Life

Half-Life - The half-life of a radioactive element is the

time required for the element to decay to half of the original amount. For instance, half-life is the time period during which half of the atom of a radioactive element undergoes a nuclear process to be reduced into a lighter element.

Nuclear Chemistry
Half-Life

In calculating the half-life of nuclear elements, we use the formula,

= 0.5/1/2
Where AE = amount of substance left Ao = original amount of substance t = elapsed time t1/2 = half-life of the substance

Nuclear Chemistry
Half-Life

If you are given 157 grams of 14C, how much of 14C would be left after 2000 years. The half-life of 14C is 5730 years.
AE = 157 * .52000/5730 Amount of 14C left after 2000 years would be 123 grams.

Nuclear Chemistry
Half-Life

has a half life of 6.13 hours. How much of a 5.0 mg sample would remain after one day? Amount remaining = 5.0 mg x (.067) Amount remaining = 0.33 mg

228Ac

Nuclear Chemistry
Half-Life

Barium-122 has a half-life of 2 minutes. A fresh sample weighing 80 g was obtained. If it takes 10 minutes to set up an experiment using barium-122, how much barium-122 will be left when the experiment begins?
At the end of 10 minutes (5 half-lives) only 2.5 g are left, the rest has decayed.

Nuclear Chemistry
Half-Life

If 10 mg of iodine 131 is given to a patient, how much is left after 24 days? The half-life of iodine-131 is 8 days.
Since the half-life is 8 days, 24 days corresponds to 3 half-lives. After one half-life 5 mg are left; after two half-lives, 2.5 mg; and after 3 half-lives 1.25 mg remain.

Nuclear Chemistry
Half-Life EXAMPLE E Carbon-14 has a half-life of 5730 years and is used to date archaeological objects. All living organisms have a constant carbon-12/carbon14 ratio. When the organism dies carbon-12 levels remain constant but carbon-14 decays. The changing carbon-12/carbon-14 ratio can be used to determine the date of the artifact. For example, fresh charcoal made from a tree contains carbon-14 which will give a radioactive count of 13.60 disintegrations per minute per gram of carbon. Prehistoric cave paintings were found in Spain. A piece of charcoal found in the ancient cave in Altamira, Spain gave 1.70 disintegrations per minute per gram of carbon. From this information, determine the age of the cave paintings.

Nuclear Chemistry
Half-Life

After one half-life the number of disintegrations will go from 13.60 to 6.80; after two half-lives it is 3.40 and after three half-lives 1.70. Therefore 3 half-lives have elapsed since the paintings were done. Since the half-life of carbon-14 is 5730 years the paintings are about 5730x3=17,190 years old.

Nuclear Chemistry
Half-Life

The half-life of carbon-14 is 5730 years. A piece of linen found today contains carbon14 and gives an activity of 15 counts per minute per gram of carbon. If an anthropologist found an ancient piece of linen believed to date back to the Neolithic period which gave only 7.5 counts per minute per gram of carbon, how old is the ancient linen ? Ans. 5730 years

Nuclear Chemistry
Half-Life

Technetium-99m is used for brain scans. If a laboratory receives a shipment of 200 g of this isotope and after 24 hours only 12.5 g of this isotope remain, what is the half-life of technetium-99m? Ans. 6 hours

Nuclear Chemistry
Half-Life

Mercury -197 is used for kidney scans and has a half-life of 3 days. If the amount of mercury-197 needed for a study is 1.0 gram and the time allowed for shipment is 15 days, how much mercury-197 will need to be ordered?
Ans. 32 g

Nuclear Chemistry
Half-Life

If the half-life of uranium-232 is 70 years, how many half-lives will it take for 10 g of it to be reduced to 1.25 g?
Ans. 3 half-lives